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Climate Dynamics
Kerry H. Cook

Book Description | Reviews
Preface [in PDF format] | Chapter 1 [in PDF format]

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Preface xi

Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Climate System 1
Reference and Additional Reading 3

Chapter 2 The Observed Climatology 4
2.1 The Atmosphere 5
2.2 The Ocean 22
2.3 The Hydrologic Cycle 33
2.4 The Cryosphere 42
2.5 The Biosphere 46
2.6 Data Sources and References 47
2.7 Exercises 48

Chapter 3 Observations of Natural Climate Variability 49
3.1 Diurnal and Seasonal Climate Variations 50
3.2 Intraseasonal Climate Variability 51
3.3 Interannual Climate Variability 54
3.4 Decadal Climate Variability 59
3.5 Climate Variations on Century to Billion-Year Time Scales 63
3.6 Additional Reading 65

Chapter 4 Radiative Processes in the Climate System 66
4.1 Blackbody Theory 66
4.2 Application of Blackbody Theory to the Earth System 67
4.3 How Constant Is the Solar Constant? 69
4.4 Solar and Terrestrial Spectra 70
4.5 The Greenhouse Effect 76
4.6 The Equation of Transfer 82
4.7 Radiative Effects of Clouds 85
4.8 References 87
4.9 Exercises 87

Chapter 5 Thermodynamics and the Flow of Heat through the Climate System 89
5.1 Equations of State 89
5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 91
5.3 Heat Balance Equations 92
5.4 Observed Heat Fluxes 98
5.5 Additional Reading 107
5.6 Exercises 108

Chapter 6 Dynamics: The Forces That Drive Atmospheric and Ocean Circulations 109
6.1 The Coriolis Force 110
6.2 Pressure Gradient Force 116
6.3 Hydrostatic Balance 117
6.4 Geostrophic Balance 120
6.5 Friction 122
6.6 The Momentum Equations 123
6.7 Exercises 123

Chapter 7 Atmospheric Circulations 126
7.1 Thermally Direct Circulations 126
7.2 Midlatitude Circulation Systems 135
7.3 Exercises 136

Chapter 8 Ocean Circulation Systems 137
8.1 Wind-Driven Circulation: Ekman Dynamics 137
8.2 The Density-Driven Circulation: The Thermohaline Circulation 141
8.3 Vertical Mixing Processes 142
8.4 Reference 146
8.5 Exercises 146

Chapter 9 The Hydrologic Cycle 148
9.1 Atmospheric Water Balance 148
9.2 Land Surface Water Balance 151
9.3 Exercises 152

Chapter 10 Radiative Forcing of Climate Change 153
10.1 The Atmosphere's Changing Chemical Composition 154
10.2 Radiative Effects of Greenhouse Gas Increases 160
10.3 Exercises 163

Chapter 11 Climate Change Processes 165
11.1 Climate Sensitivity 165
11.2 Climate Feedback Processes 166
11.3 Extreme Hydrologic Events 171
11.4 Exercises 172

Chapter 12 Climate Simulation and Prediction 174
12.1 Zero-Dimensional Climate Model 174
12.2 Surface Heat Balance Climate Models 176
12.3 General Circulation Models 177
12.4 Regional Climate Models 181
12.5 Earth System Models 181
12.6 Evaluating Model Uncertainty 185
12.7 Reference and Additional Reading 186
12.8 Exercises 186

Appendix A Units, Constants, and Conversions 189
Appendix B Coordinate Systems 191
Local Cartesian Coordinates 191
Earth-Centered Spherical Coordinates 192
Appendix C Lagrangian and Eulerian Derivatives 195
Index 197

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File created: 7/11/2014

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