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A Compendium of Geochemistry:
From Solar Nebula to the Human Brain
Yuan-Hui Li

Book Description | Reviews
Chapter 1 [in PDF format]


Preface xi
Chapter 1 Atoms, Nuclei, and Energy 3
Introduction 3
I-1. Periodic Table of the Elements and Electron Configurations of Atoms 3
I-2. Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Binding Energies 13
I-3. Cohesive Energies among the Atoms of Pure Metals and Nonmetals 19
I-4. Ionization Energies and Electron Affinities of Gaseous Atoms and Ions 23
I-5. Ionic Radii and Ionic Potentials 28
I-6. Electric Polarizability 35
I-7. Electronegativity 39
I-8. Crystal Lattice Energies 44
I-9. Hydrolysis of Canons and Dissociation of Oxyacids 48
I-10. Solubility Products and Affinity of Aqueous Cations to Oxides 52
I-11. Concluding Remarks 53
Chapter 2: The Solar Nebula and Nucleosynthesis 55
Introduction 55
II-1. Elemental and Isotopic Compositions of the Solar Nebula 55
II-2. Cosmological Nucleosynthesis 63
II-3. Stellar Nucleosynthesis 68
II-4. Concluding Remarks 82
Chapter 3: Structure and Chemistry of the Solar System 83
Introduction 83
III-1. Motion of Interplanetary Objects 83
III-2. Asteroids and Comets 86
III-3. Planets, Their Satellites, and Their Rings 99
III-4. Condensation of Solid Dusts from the Solar Nebular Gas 107
Chapter 4: Distribution of Elements in Meteorites 119
Introduction 119
IV-1. Classification of Meteorites 119
IV-2. Oxygen Isotopes and Possible Genetic Relationships among Subclasses of Meteorites 129
IV-3. Bulk Compositions of Chondrites and Factor Analysis 133
IV-4. Cosmochemical Classification of Elements 144
IV-5. Matrices and Chondrules of Chondrites 154
IV-6. Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in Chondrites 167
IV-7. Igneous Differentiation in Achondrites and Iron Meteorites 179
IV-8. Concluding Remarks 188
Chapter 5: Igneous Rocks and the Composition of the Earth 189
Introduction 189
V-1. Classification Scheme for Igneous Rocks 189
V-2. Earth's Structure and Mineral Composition 193
V-3. Partial Melting and Fractional Crystallization Models of Igneous Rocks 197
V-4. Deduction of the Primitive Upper Mantle Composition 209
V-5. Partition of the Elements between Mantle and Core 215
V-6. Continental and Oceanic Crusts 221
V-7. Relationship between the Compositions of Mantle and Crust 231
V-8. Isotopic Heterogeneity of the Mantle 234
V-9. Case Studies of Elemental Association in Igneous Rocks 242
V-10. Concluding Remarks 249
Chapter 6: Weathering and Sedimentary Rocks 253
Introduction 253
VI-1. Weathering of Igneous Rocks 254
VI-2. Dissolved Products of Chemical Weathering 260
VI-3. Major Classes of Sedimentary Rocks 264
VI-4. Relative Abundances of Major Sedimentary Rock Types and Mass Balance 268
VI-5. Shales and Related Materials 273
VI-6. Trace Elements in Sandstone and Limestone 283
VI-7. Iron Formations 288
VI-8. Partition of Elements between River-Suspended Particles and River Water, and the Adsorption Model 296
VI-9. Concluding Remarks 302
Chapter 7: Distribution of Elements in the Ocean 303
Introduction 303
VII-I. Concentrations of Elements in the Oceans 3(13
VII-2. Chemical Speciation of Elements in the Ocean 312
VII-3. Marine Algae and Plankton 317
VII-4. Zooplankton Fecal Pellets and Sediment Trap Material 325
VII-5. Marine Sediments 329
VII-6. Marine Manganese Nodules and Seamount Manganese Crusts 341
VII-7. Marine Phosphorite 347
VII-8. Hydrothermal Vents of the Mid-Ocean Ridges 348
VII-9. Concluding Remarks 352
Chapter 8: Biosphere and Homo Sapiens 355
Introduction 355
VIII-1. Are all Creatures Created Equal? 355
VIII-2. Human Body 366
VIII-3. Coals, Crude Oils, and Organic-Rich Shales 376
VIII-4. Relative Volatility of Elements and Compositions of Aerosol Particles 387
VIII-5. Effects of Fossil Fuel Burning on the Chemistry of Rain and River Waters: A Case Study 405
VIII-6. Concluding Remarks 411
Appendix: Rayleigh Condensation and Evaporation Models 413
Appendix Table A-1: Ionization Energies 415
Appendix Table A-2: Abundance of the Nuclides 418
Appendix Table A-3: Minerals in Meteorites 424
Appendix Table A-4: Minerals in Igneous Rocks 426
References 429
Index 465

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File created: 4/17/2014

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