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America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe
Volker R. Berghahn

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Abbreviations ix
Introduction xi
CHAPTER 1: From Nashua and Berlin to Pearl Harbor 3
Nashua (New Hampshire) and Dartmouth College 3
Student in Weimar Germany 6
Reporting on Europe and Hitler 12
Rescue from the Holocaust 23
CHAPTER 2: Defeating and Rebuilding Germany 26
War Service in Europe 26
Occupied Germany 29
Working for U.S. Military Government 33
Back with the New York Times 44
CHAPTER 3: Public Opinion and High Politics in Semisovereign West Germany 52
Joining U.S. High Commissioner John J. McCloy 52
Stone's German-American Network 55
McCloy's ''Harry Hopkins'' 59
Supporting a Democratic Press 68
CHAPTER 4: Mass Society and the Threat of Totalitarianism 77
Elites and Masses 78
Visions of America 85
Totalitarian Dictatorships 92
The Debate on Culture in America 96
CHAPTER 5: Western Intellectuals and the Cold Culture Wars of the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) 108
Mass Culture and the Congress for Cultural Freedom 108
Communists and Ex-Communists 113
Rallying the Anti-Soviet Left 126
The Growth of the CCF Empire 132
CHAPTER 6: Internationalizing the Ford Foundation 143
The Biggest Philanthropic Organization in the World 143
The Conditions of Peace Project 145
The Struggle for a European Program 153
Exporting American Culture 168
CHAPTER 7: Philanthropy and Diplomacy 178
Ford's International Program 178
Looking East 187
Midwife to European Philanthropy 194
Cultural and Political Investments 201
CHAPTER 8: The CIA, the Ford Foundation, and the Demise of the CCF Empire 214
The U.S. Government and the Funding of Culture 215
The Ford Foundation's Washington Connections 220
Rescuing the CCF 230
Scandal and Collapse 241
CHAPTER 9: Coping with the New Culture Wars of the 1960s and Beyond 250
The Establishment of the IACF 250
Financial Straits 255
The Cultural Roots of Failure 265
The Berlin Aspen Institute 276
CHAPTER 10: Transatlantic Cultural Relations in the ''American Century'' 284
APPENDIX I: List of West German Newspapers Subsidized by HICOG 297
APPENDIX II: American Foundations Ranked by Assets, 1960 299
APPENDIX III: International Association for Cultural Freedom, Table of Organization 300
Notes 301
Bibliography 355
Index 363

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File created: 4/21/2017

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