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The Butterflies of Papua New Guinea:
Their Systematics and Biology
Michael Parsons

Book Description | Reviews

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

PREFACE xi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTE ADDED IN PROOF xv
PART I
1. SCOPE AND FORMAT OF THE BOOK I
Format and Categories of Species Accounts 1
Races 1
Range 1
Adults 2
Early Stages 3
Foodplants 3
Habits 3
Notes 3
Abbreviations 3
Geographical 3
Institutions and Collections 3
Species Descriptions 3
List of Abbreviations 4
2. NEW GUINEA PAST AND PRESENT 7
Plate Tectonics, Gondwanaland and New Guinea's Origins 7
Island Arc Theories 10
Present-day Structure and Topography 13
Climate 14
Vegetation 16
3. WORLD FAUNAL REGIONS AND BUTTERFLY DIVERSITY 19
Faunal Regions 19
New Guinea Butterfly Diversity 21
4. ORIGINS AND COMPOSITION OF THE NEW GUINEA BUTTERFLY FAUNA 25
General Faunistics 25
Climatic and Ecological Effects 27
Migration and Dispersal 29
General Effects of Insularity 31
Local Topographic Effects 33
Continental Drift 34
Genetics and Associated Factors 40
Conclusions 41
5. A HISTORY OF BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN NEW GUINEA 43
Background: Early Exploration 43
Expeditions and the Start of Comprehensive Collecting 44
Miscellaneous Collectors 64
6. BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION AND COMMERCE IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 67
Valuable Goods 67
Problems of Habitat Conservation 67
Origins of the New Guinea Butterfly Trade 68
Case Study: the Birdwings 69
Rationales of Conservation Through Commerce 71
The Insect Farming and Trading Agency 72
Butterfly Farms 74
Collecting: An Important Part of the System 75
Conclusions 76
7. ASPECTS OF BUTTERFLY ECOLOGY IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 79
Local and Regional Abundance 79
Habitat Preference and Home-Range Behaviour 81
Plantations as `Artificial Habitats' 84
Adult Food and Feeding Behaviour 84
Adult Courtship and Mating 85
Myrmecophily - Lycaenid/Ant Relationships 86
Ectoparasitism 89
Mortality Factors 89
Eggs 89
Larvae 90
Prepupae and Pupae 90
Adults 90
Diapause 90
8. MIMICRY IN NEW GUINEA BUTTERFLIES 93
1. Alcidis agathrysus Uraniid Moth Complex 95
2. Agaristine Noctuid and Arctiid Moth Complex 96
3. Troidine Papilionid Complexes 96
4. Delias Pierid Complex 97
5. Danis/Psychonotis Polyommatine Lycaenid Complex 98
6. Danaine Nymphalid Complex 98
7. Tellervo Ithomiine Nymphalid Complex 100
8. Taenaris Morphine Nymphalid Complex 102
9. Heliconiine Nymphalid Complex 103
9. COLLECTION AND STUDY 105
Field Collecting 105
Preparing the Collection 105
Sexing Butterflies 106
Dissection and Study of Genitalia 106
Studying Wing-Venation 107
10. ADULT STRUCTURE 109
Head 109
Thorax 109
Abdomen 112
Genitalia 113
Male 113
Female 114
11. CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE 117
Systematics and Taxonomy 117
Nomenclature 118
The Butterfly Families 119
Distinguishing Moths from Butterflies 122
Problems of Species and Subspecies 122
Problems in Phylogenetic Analyses and the Importance of Early Stage Taxonomic Studies 125
Conclusions 126
PART II
12. SUPERFAMILY HESPERIOIDEA LATREILLE, 1809: FAMILY HESPERIIDAE LATREILLE, 1809 - SKIPPERS 129
SUBFAMILY PYRGINAE BURMEISTER, 1878 131
SUBFAMILY COELIADINAE EVANS, 1937 142
SUBFAMILY TRAPEZITINAE WATERHOUSE 8L LYELL, 1914 152
SUBFAMILY HESPERIINAE LATREILLE, 1809 158
13. SUPERFAMILY PAPILIONOIDEA LATREILLE, 1802: 211
FAMILY PAPILIONIDAE LATREILLE, 1802 - SWALLOWTAILS 211
SUBFAMILY PAPILIONINAE LATREILLE, 1803 214
14. FAMILY PIERIDAE DUPONCHEL, 1835 - WHITES 217
SUBFAMILY COLIADINAE SWAINSON, 1827 274
SUBFAMILY PIERINAE DUPONCHEL, 1835 285
15. FAMILY LYCAENIDAE LEACH, 1815 - BLUES 323
SUBFAMILY RIODININAE GROTE, 1895 327
SUBFAMILY CURETINAE DISTANT, 1884 335
SUBFAMILY LYCAENINAE LEACH, 1815 337
16. FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE SWAINSON, 1827 - NYMPHS 479
SUBFAMILY LIBYTHEINAE DUPONCHEL, 1844 483
SUBFAMILY ITHOMIINAE KIRBY, 1894 485
SUBFAMILY DANAINAE BOISDUVAL, 1833 491
SUBFAMILY MORPHINAE NEWMAN, 1834 522
SUBFAMILY SATYRINAE BOISDUVAL, 1833 542
SUBFAMILY CHARAXINAE DOHERTY, 1886 573
SUBFAMILY APATURINAE BOISDUVAL, 1840 578
SUBFAMILY NYMPHALINAE SWAINSON, 1827 584
SUBFAMILY HELICONIINAE SWAINSON, 1827 616
KEYS TO PNG TAXA
Notocrypta (Hesperiidae) 161
Gegenes group (Hesperiidae) 204
Elodina species (Pieridae) 286
Males of Callictita species and their subspecies (Lycaenidae) 457
Tellervo species (Nymphalidae) 486
Indo-Australian Genera of New Guinea Heliconiinae (Nymphalidae) 619
APPENDICES
I. Important Geographical Synonyms 637
II. Important Collectors' Label Data 638
III. All Taxonomic Changes of Papua New Guinea Butterflies Presented in this Book 641
IV. Checklist of High Altitude Butterfly Species in New Guinea 646
V. New Guinea Butterfly Genera Also Occurring in the Oriental Subregion 647
VI. New Guinea Butterfly Genera Restricted to the Australian Subregion 649
VII. Butterfly Genera Endemic to the New Guinea Mainland 650
VIII. Restricted Distribution Endemics of New Guinea 651
IX. Checklist of Named Taxa of Atrophaneura polydorus in the New Guinea Region 654
X. Annotated list of New Guinea Butterfly Genera 655
XI. Checklist of New Guinea butterflies 657
BIBLIOGRAPHY 683
GLOSSARY 723

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File created: 7/11/2014

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