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Science and Polity in France:
The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Years
Charles Coulston Gillispie

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Abbreviations ix
Introduction 1
Chapter I. Science and Politics under the Constituent Assembly 7
1.Science and Politics in 1789 7
2.Bailly and the Constituent Assembly 15
3.Lavoisier and the Arsenal 25
4.Vicq d'Azyr and the Reform of Medicine 36
5.Condorcet and Truth in Politics 56
6.Condorcet, Bailly, and the Governance of Paris 67
7.Political Economy 78
8.Varennes and the Champ-de-Mars 96
Chapter II. Education, Science, and Politics 101
1.Scientists in the Legislative Assembly 101
2.The Condorcet Plan for National Education 110
3.Talleyrand's Educational Proposal 124
4.The Educational Legacy of the Old Regime 129
5.The Political Setting 136
6.The Convention 140
7.Education and Science 146
Chapter III. The Museum of Natural History and the Academy of Science: Rise and Fall 165
1.Natural History and Theoretical Science 165
2.The Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 167
3.The Academy of Science in the Revolutionary Climate 184
4.Artisans and Inventors 195
5.The Last Year of the Academy 210
Chapter IV. The Metric System 223
1.Background 223
2.Proposals 235
3.Methods and Instruments 250
4.Operations in the Field 258
5.The Provisional Meter 278
Chapter V. Science and the Terror 286
1.Terror amd Expropriation 286
2.The Republican Calendar 293
3.The Observatory of Paris 298
4.The Collège de France 306
5.Individual Destinies 311
6.The Calvary of Condorcet 326
Chapter VI. Scientists at War 339
1.The Monge Connection 339
2.Weaponry 358
3.The Mobilization of Scientists 381
4.Munitions and Guns 397
5.Inventions 428
6.Natural History and Conquest 433
7.Effects of Wartime: Science and the State 444
Chapter VII. Thermidorean Convention and Directory 445
1.Institutionalization of French Science, 1794-1804 445
2.Institut de France, Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, and Bureau des Longitudes 446
3.Completion of the Metric System 458
4.The École Normale de l'an III 494
5.The École Polytechnique 520
6.The École de Santé and Clinical Medicine 540
Chapter VIII. Bonaparte and the Scientific Community 551
1.Monge in Italy, 1796-1798 551
2.The Egyptian Expedition 557
3.The Idéologues and 18 Brumaire 600
4.The Consulate, 1799-1804 611
5.Napoleon and Science 640
Chapter IX. Positivist Science 652
1.Discipline Formation 652
2.Comparative Anatomy 655
3.Experimental Physiology 662
4.Mathematical Physics 675
5.Conclusion 694
Acknowledgments 697
Bibliography 699
2.Index 717

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File created: 4/21/2017

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