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Geochemistry of Marine Sediments
David J. Burdige

Book Description | Reviews
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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Preface xv
Common Abbreviations and Symbols xvii

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1

CHAPTER TWO: The Components of Marine Sediments 5
2.1 Detrital Components 5
2.2 Biogenic Components 8
2.2.1 Biogenic Carbonates 9
2.2.2 Biogenic Silica 10
2.2.3 Distribution of Biogenic Components in Marine Sediments 10
2.3 Authigenic Minerals 12
2.3.1 Nonbiogenic Carbonates 13
2.3.2 Mn Crusts, Layers, and Nodules 13
2.3.3 Phosphorites 14
2.3.4 Sulfides 15
2.4 Clays and Clay Minerals 15
2.4.1 Distribution of Clay Minerals in Surface Marine Sediments 18
2.4.2 Ion Exchange/Adsorption 20
2.5 The Classification of Marine Sediments and Sedimentary Regimes 24

CHAPTER THREE: Isotope Geochemistry 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Principles of Isotope Fractionation 28
3.2.1 Terminology 30
3.2.2 Equilibrium Isotope Exchange Reactions 31
3.3 Isotope Fractionation in Inorganic Materials in Nature 32
3.3.1 Isotope Fractionation in the Hydrosphere and in Ice Cores 32
3.3.2 Isotope Fractionation during Clay Mineral Formation 34
3.3.3 Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Calcite 35
3.4 Carbon Isotopes in Organic Matter 36
3.4.1 Photosynthesis 37
3.4.2 Respiration (Early Diagenesis in Sediments) 38
3.5 Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Sediment Pore-Waters 38
3.5.1 Carbon Isotopes 38
3.5.2 Oxygen Isotopes 39
3.6 Nitrogen Isotopes 39
3.7 Sulfur Isotopes 40
3.8 Radioactive Isotopes 40
3.8.1 Basic Principles 40
3.8.2 Radiocarbon 43

CHAPTER FOUR: Physical Properties of Sediments 46
4.1 Grain Size 46
4.2 Porosity and Sediment Density 47
4.3 Permeability 55

CHAPTER FIVE: An Introduction to Transport Processes in Sediments 59
5.1 Diffusion 59
5.2 Sediment Accumulation, Steady State,and the Frame of Reference for Processes in Marine Sediments 61
5.3 An Introduction to Bioturbation and Bioirrigation 65
5.4 Time and Space Scales of Sediment Processes 67
5.5 The Classification of Marine Sediments on the Basis of Their Functional Diagenetic Characteristics 70

CHAPTER SIX: Models of Sediment Diagenesis 72
6.1 The General Diagenetic Equation 72
6.1.1 Diffusion 74
6.1.2 Advection, Sediment Compaction, and Bioturbation 78
6.1.3 Adsorption 83
6.2 Solutions to the Diagenetic Equation 84
6.2.1 Boundary Conditions 86
6.3 Solutions to Specific Diagenetic Equations 87
6.3.1 Organic Matter Remineralization without Bioturbation 88
6.3.2 Organic Matter Remineralization with Bioturbation 89
6.3.3 Organic Matter Remineralization Coupled to Sulfate Reduction 91
6.3.4 Ammonium Production in Anoxic Sediments 92
6.3.5 Determination of Sediment Accumulation Rates 95

CHAPTER SEVEN Biogeochemical Processes in Sediments 97
7.1 Bacterial Metabolism: General Considerations 98
7.2 Bacterial Respiration and Biogeochemical Zonation in Sediments 99
7.3 Bacterial Respiration: Specific Processes 105
7.3.1 Aerobic Respiration 105
7.3.2 Denitrification 105
7.3.3 Manganese and Iron Reduction 107
7.3.4 Sulfate Reduction 110
7.3.5 Methanogenesis 111
7.4 Chemolithotrophic Reactions 114
7.4.1 Aerobic Processes 114
7.4.2 Anaerobic Processes 116
7.4.3 Linkages between Chemolithotrophic and Organic Matter Remineralization Processes 116
7.5 The Distribution of Organic Matter Remineralization Processes in Marine Sediments 120
7.5.1 Depth Scales of Biogeochemical Zonation 120
7.5.2 General Trends with Water Column Depth or Sediment Type 124
7.6 Dynamics of Organic Matter Decomposition in Sediments 134
7.6.1 General Considerations 134
7.6.2 Anaerobic "Foodchains" 135
7.6.3 Dynamics of Organic Matter Decomposition under Mixed Redox Conditions 139

CHAPTER EIGHT: Quantifying Carbon and Nutrient Remineralization in Sediments 142
8.1 Models of Organic Matter Decomposition in Sediments 142
8.2 Sediment Budgets for Reactive Components 150
8.2.1 Theoretical Considerations 151
8.2.2 Sediment Nutrient Budgets Using Cape Lookout Bight as an Example 153
8.3 Carbon Burial in Sediments 161
8.4 Layered and Coupled Models of Sediment Diagenesis 162

CHAPTER NINE: An Introduction to the Organic Geochemistry of Marine Sediments 171
9.1 General Considerations 172
9.2 Concentrations and Sources of Organic Matter in Marine Sediments 174
9.3 The Bulk Chemical Composition of Marine Sediment Organic Matter 175
9.4 Amino Acids 179
9.5 Carbohydrates 189
9.6 Lignins 193
9.7 Lipids 194
9.8 Humic Substances and Molecularly Uncharacterized Organic Matter 204
9.8.1 Black Carbon 206
9.8.2 Molecularly Uncharacterized Organic Matter (MU-OM): General Considerations 207
9.8.3 Geopolymerization: The Formation of Humic Substances 209
9.8.4 Selective Preservation of Refractory Biomacromolecules 212
9.8.5 Physical Protection 213
9.9 Organic Nitrogen Diagenesis in Sediments 215

CHAPTER TEN: Dissolved Organic Matter in Marine Sediments 218
10.1 General Observations 218
10.2 Diagenetic Models of Pore-Water DOM Cycling in Sediments 227
10.3 Pore-Water DOM Compositional Data 228
10.3.1 Short-Chain Organic Acids 230
10.3.2 Carbohydrates 231
10.3.3 Amino Acids 231
10.4 Fluxes of DOM from Marine Sediments 232
10.5 DOM Adsorption and Sediment-Organic Matter Interactions 234

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Linking Sediment Organic Geochemistry and Sediment Diagenesis 237
11.1 The Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments 237
11.1.1 Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Tracers of Organic Matter Sources 238
11.1.2 Elemental Ratios as Tracers of Organic Matter Sources 241
11.1.3 Spatial Trends in the Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments:Marine versus Terrestrial 244
11.1.4 Other Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments: Black Carbon and Recycled Kerogen 249
11.1.5 Production of Bacterial Biomass in Sediments 250
11.2 The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization in Marine Sediments 253
11.2.1 Pore-Water Stoichiometric Models for Nutrient Regeneration/Organic Mater Remineralization 254
11.2.2 Benthic Flux and Sediment POM Stoichiometric Models for Nutrient Regeneration 260
11.2.3 The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization: Elemental Ratios and Stable Isotopic Composition 261
11.2.4 The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization: Organic Geochemical Composition 265

CHAPTER TWELVE: Processes at the Sediment-Water Interface 271
12.1 The Determination of Benthic Fluxes 272
12.2 Diffusive Transportand the Benthic Boundary Layer 274
12.3 Sediment-Water Exchange Processes in Permeable Sediments 283
12.4 Bioturbation 286
12.4.1 General Considerations 286
12.4.2 Models of Bioturbation 289
12.4.3 Nonlocal Sediment Mixing 299
12.5 Bioirrigation 302
12.5.1 The Diffusive Openness of Bioirrigated Sediments 313
12.5.2 Methods for Quantifying Bioirrigation in Sediments 316
12.5.3 Rates of Bioirrigation in Marine Sediments 319
12.6 Other Sediment-Water Interface Processes: Methane Gas Ebullition 326

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Biogeochemical Processes in Pelagic (Deep-Sea) Sediments 328
13.1 Organic Matter Remineralization 328
13.2 Trace Metal Diagenesis 332
13.3 Manganese Nodules and Crusts 344
13.4 Diagenesis of Opaline Silica 352
13.5 Diagenesis of Calcium Carbonate 359

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Nonsteady-State Processes in Marine Sediments 373
14.1 General Considerations 373
14.2 Periodic Input Processes 374
14.3 Seasonality in Sediment Processes 378
14.4 Diagenetic Processes in Deep-Sea Turbidites 382
14.4.1 Organic Geochemical Studies of Turbidite Diagenesis 391
14.5 Multiple Mn Peaks in Sediments: Nonsteady-State Diagenetic Processes Associated with Paleoceanographic Changes 395
14.5.1 Multiple Mn Peaks and the Glacial-Holocene Transition 400
14.5.2 Multiple Mn Peaks and Pleistocene Climate Cycles 402
14.5.3 Multiple Mn Peaks in Holocene Sediments 404

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: The Controls on Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments 408
15.1 Organic Matter-Mineral Interactions 412
15.2 The Role of Oxygen in Sediment Carbon Remineralization and Preservation 417
15.3 The Role of Benthic Macrofaunal Processes in Sediment Carbon Remineralization and Preservation 419
15.4 Oxygen Exposure Time as a Determinant of Organic Carbon Preservation in Sediments 421
15.4.1 What Exactly Does Sediment Oxygen Exposure "Mean"? 425
15.4.2 Organic Carbon Burial and Controls on Atmospheric O2 428
15.5 The Composition of Organic Matter Preserved in Marine Sediments and the Fate of Terrestrial Organic Matter in Marine Sediments 432
15.6 The Relationship between Physical Protection, Oxygen Exposure,and Possible Abiotic Condensation Reactions in Sediment Carbon Preservation 439

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Biogeochemical Processes in Continental Margin Sediments. I. The CO2 System and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling 442
16.1 Pore-Water pH and Carbonate Chemistry under Suboxic and Anoxic Conditions 442
16.2 Sediment Nitrogen Cycling 452
16.2.1 Benthic DON Fluxes 463
16.3 Sediment Phosphorus Cycling 464
16.3.1 Formation of Authigenic CFA and Phosphorus Burial in Sediments 474

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: Biogeochemical Processes in Continental Margin Sediments. II. Sulfur, Methane, and Trace Metal Cycling 478
17.1 Sediment Sulfur Cycling 478
17.1.1 Sulfur Burial Efficiency 486
17.1.2 Long-Term Changes in the Sedimentary Sulfur Cycle 489
17.2 Methanogenesis and Anaerobic Methane Oxidation 490
17.2.1 Shallow (Coastal) Sediments 490
17.2.2 Continental Margin Sediments 493
17.3 Trace Metal Cycling 500

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: Linking Sediment Processes to Global Elemental Cycles: Authigenic Clay Mineral Formation and Reverse Weathering 509
18.1 Sediment Silica Budgets 514
18.2 Final Thoughts 515

Appendix Some of the Field Sites Discussed in the Text 517
References 521
Index 593

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File created: 7/11/2014

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