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The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter
Helen R. Quinn & Yossi Nir

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Acknowledgments xi

Chapter 1: Prelude: The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter 1

Chapter 2: Constant Physics in an Evolving Universe 7
Universal Laws 7
Hubble and the Expanding Universe 8
Red-shifts: Evidence for an Expanding Universe 12
Numbers Large and Small 17
What Do We Mean by "Universe"? 19

Chapter 3: As the Universe Expands 21
Running the Clock Forward: Radiation 21
Running the Clock Forward: Dark Matter 26
Running the Clock Forward: Light Nuclei 29
Running the Clock Forward: Matter and Antimatter 32

Chapter 4: What Is Antimatter? 36
What Is Matter? 36
Dirac Introduces Antimatter 42
Experiments Confirm That Antimatter Exists 45
Radioactive Decays of Nuclei 48

Chapter 5: Enter Neutrinos 51
Pauli: The Beta Decay Puzzle 51
Fermi: The Theory of Neutrinos Develops 53
Cowan and Reines: Neutrinos Detected 55

Chapter 6: Mesons 57
Yukawa and the Pi-Meson 57
Strange Mesons, Strange Quantum Concepts 61

Chapter 7: Through the Looking Glass 63
What Physicists Mean by the Term Symmetry 63
A Gedanken Experiment 64
The Actual Experiment 67

Chapter 8: Through the Looking Antiglass 73
Another Gedanken Experiment 73
Cronin and Fitch: Matter and Antimatter Do Not Follow the Same Laws 75

Chapter 9: The Survival of Matter 80
Pauli's Other Letter: Initial Conditions on the Universe 80
Sakharov: The Conditions Needed to Develop an Imbalance 84
Cosmology with Sakharov's Conditions Met: Baryogenesis 88

Chapter 10: Enter Quarks 91
Quarks 91
Why Don't We See the Quarks? 96
What about Dark Matter? 100
The Missing Charm, the Surprising Tau 101
The Standard Model: Particles and Interactions 107

Chapter 11: Energy Rules 111
Stored Energy, Forces, and Energy Conservation 111
Force Fields Permeating Space 114
Field Theory and the Energy Function 116

Chapter 12: Symmetry Rules 121
Symmetries as Answers to the Question "Why?" 121
Symmetries and Conservation Laws 123
Space-Time Symmetries 124
Gauge Symmetries 126
Discrete Symmetries 128
Baryon and Lepton Number Conservation? 130

Chapter 13: Standard Model Gauge Symmetries 132
The Symmetry behind the Electromagnetic Interaction 132
The Symmetry behind the Strong Interaction 134
The Symmetry behind the Weak Interaction 137

Chapter 14: A Missing Piece 140
The Puzzle of Particle Masses 140
How Do We Describe Nothing? 146
At Last, CP Violated in the Standard Model 153

Chapter 15: It Still Doesn't Work! 159
Running the Clock Forward: The Standard Model 159
Now What? 163

Chapter 16: Tools of the Trade 168
Accelerators 168
Detectors 172
Data Handling and Analysis 177
How Projects Develop 178

Chapter 17: Searching for Clues 180
Where Are We Now? 180
Testing the Standard Model in B-Meson Decays 182
Oddone: How to Build B Factories? 184
Running the B Factories: The First Test 190

Chapter 18: Speculations 194
Why Are We Never Satisfied? 194
Grand Unified Theories 195
Supersymmetry 201
Way beyond the Standard Model 204

Chapter 19: Neutrino Surprises 206
Davis, Bahcall, Koshiba: Solar Neutrinos 206
Quantum Neutrino Properties 214

Chapter 20: Following the New Clues 222
Some Things We Know 222
Some Things We Speculate About 225
Fitting It All Together 227

Chapter 21: Finale 231
Appendix: A Timeline of Particle Physics and Cosmology 233
Perspective 233
Relevant Nineteenth-Century Developments 234
1900-1930: Development of Quantum Ideas, Beginnings of
Scientific Cosmology 238
1930-1950: New Particles, New Ideas 245
1930-1960s: The Advent of Accelerator Experiments--The Particle Explosion; Implications of Expanding Universe Explored 249
1964-1973: Formulation of the Modern View of Particles and the
Universe 256
Two Standard Models Emerge--Particles and Cosmology 263

Index 273

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File created: 4/21/2017

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