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Physiological Ecology:
How Animals Process Energy, Nutrients, and Toxins
William H. Karasov & Carlos Martínez del Rio

Book Description | Reviews
Chapter 1 [in PDF format]

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xv

SECTION I: OVERVIEW

CHAPTER ONE: Basic Concepts: Budgets, Allometry, Temperature, and The Imprint of History 3
1.1 The Input/Output Budget: A Key Conceptual Framework 4
1.2 The Importance of Size: Scaling of Physiological and Ecological Traits 10
1.3 The Importance of Temperature 30
1.4 Using Historical Data in Comparative Studies 35

SECTION II: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF FOOD

CHAPTER TWO: The Chemistry and Biology of Food 49
2.1 Getting Started; First Catch (Store and Prepare) the Hare 49
2.2 Proximate Nutrient Analysis 54
2.3 Dietary Fiber 58
2.4 Carbohydrates 63
2.5 Amino Acids and Proteins 69
2.6 Lipids 75
2.7 Vitamins 93
2.8 Minerals 97
2.9 Secondary Metabolites 103
2.10 Words of Encouragement 108

SECTION III: DIGESTIVE ECOLOGY

CHAPTER THREE: Food Intake and Utilization Efficiency 117
3.1 Overview of Section III: Why Study Digestion? 117
3.2 Digestive Efficiency Is Inversely Related to "Fiber" Content 118
3.3 Both Digestion Rate and Digestive Efficiency Are Key Nutritional Variables 131
3.4 Daily Food Intake: Energy Maximization or Regulation? 139

CHAPTER FOUR: Simple Guts: The Ecological Biochemistry and Physiology of Catalytic Digestion 155
4.1 Lots of Guts, But Only a Few Basic Types 155
4.2 The Gut as a Bottleneck to Energy Flow 184
4.3 The Gut in Energy Intake Maximizers 194
4.4 Intermittent Feeders 199
4.5 The Gut in Diet Switchers 205
4.6 The Evolutionary Match between Digestion, Diets, and Animal Energetics 213
4.7 Summary: The Interplay between Digestive Physiology and Ecology 223

CHAPTER FIVE: Photosynthetic Animals and Gas-Powered Mussels: The Physiological Ecology of Nutritional Symbioses 238
5.1 A Symbiotic World 239
5.2 A Diversity of Nutritional Symbioses 243
5.3 Hot Vents and Cold Seeps: Chemolithotrophs of the Deep Sea 265
5.4 The Importance of Nitrogen in Nutritional Symbioses 284

CHAPTER SIX: Digestive Symbioses: How Insect and Vertebrate Herbivores Cope with Low Quality Plant Foods 303
6.1. Fermentation of Cell Wall Materials 304
6.2. Microbial Fermentation in Insect Guts 310
6.3. Terrestrial Vertebrates 336
6.4. Herbivory and Detritivory in Fish 376

SECTION IV: THE ECOLOGY OF POSTABSORPTIVE NUTRIENT PROCESSING

CHAPTER SEVEN: Postabsorptive Processing of Nutrients 397
7.1 Overview: The Postabsorptive Fate of Absorbed Materials 398
7.2 Controls over Postabsorptive Processing 407
7.3 Costs of Digestive and Postabsorptive Processing 412
7.4 Feast and Famine: The Biochemistry of Natural Fasting and Starvation 417
7.5 Biochemical Indices of Nutritional Status and Habitat Quality 421

CHAPTER EIGHT: Isotopic Ecology 433
8.1 Basic Principles 434
8.2 Mixing Models 440
8.3 Isotopic Signatures 444
8.4 The Dynamics of Isotopic Incorporation 455
8.5 Stable Isotopes and Migration 459
8.6 Nitrogen Isotopes 466
8.7 Concluding Remarks and (Yet Again) a Call for Laboratory Experiments 472

CHAPTER NINE: How Animals Deal with Poisons and Pollutants 479
9.1 Overview: The Postabsorptive Fate of Absorbed Xenobiotics 480
9.2 Distribution of Xenobiotics in the Body 481
9.3 Biotransformation of Absorbed Xenobiotics 483
9.4 Elimination of Xenobiotics and Their Metabolites 494
9.5 Costs of Xenobiotic Biotransformation and Elimination 498
9.6 Modeling Approaches Can Integrate the Processes of Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination (Including Biotransformation and Excretion) 504
9.7 Models Can Predict Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification in Ecosystems 508
9.8 Postingestional Effects of Xenobiotics on Feeding Behavior 509
9.9 Toxic Effects of Xenobiotics in Wild Animals 516
9.10 Toxicogenomics: New Methodologies for the Integrative Study of Exposure, Postabsorptive Processing, and Toxicity in Animals Exposed to Natural and Manmade Toxins 518

SECTION V: LIMITING NUTRIENTS

CHAPTER TEN: Ecological Stoichiometry 535
10.1 Ecological Stoichiometry: The Power of Elemental Analysis 536
10.2 An Ecological Stoichiometry Primer 542
10.3 Are Energy and Elements Two Independent Currencies? 561

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Nitrogen and Mineral Requirements 569
11.1 Nitrogen Requirements and Limitation in Ecology 569
11.2 Mineral Requirements and Limitation in Ecology 581

CHAPTER TWELVE: Water Requirement and Water Flux 608
12.1 Water Budgets, Fluxes, and Requirements 608
12.2 Avenues of Water Loss 614
12.3 The Dietary Requirement for Water 624
12.4 Ingestion of Xenobiotics Can Increase the Dietary Requirement for Water 628
12.5 Is Water Ecologically Limiting? 629
12.6 Testing the Evolutionary Match between Environmental Aridity and Water Relations 634

SECTION VI: PRODUCTION IN BUDGETS OF MASS AND ENERGY

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Growth in Budgets of Mass and Energy 647
13.1 Overview of Chapters 13 and 14 647
13.2 Two Approaches Are Used to Evaluate Costs of Production 647
13.3 Energetics of Growth 651
13.4 Rates of Growth 666
13.5 Growth in Relation to Life History Transitions 683

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Reproduction in Budgets of Mass and Energy 697
14.1 Allocation to Reproduction: Trade-off with Development and Effects of Body Size 697
14.2 Approaches for Measuring Costs of Reproduction 698
14.3 Material Costs of Reproduction 708
14.4 Nutritional Control of Reproduction 711
14.5 Putting Energy and Material Costs of Reproduction in Perspective 717

Index 725

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File created: 4/17/2014

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