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Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses:
Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools
Eric A. Hanushek & Alfred A. Lindseth

Book Description | Reviews
Introduction [in PDF format]


List of Illustrations ix
List of Tables xiii
Preface xv
Introduction 1

Chapter 1: Just How Important Is Education? 10
Education and Financial Achievement 11
Education and Poverty 15
Education and the Nation's Economic Well-Being 16
Testing Student Skills 20
Quality of U.S. Colleges 21

Chapter 2: U.S. Education at a Crossroads 23
Years of School Completed 23
Achievement Levels (or the Mastery of Cognitive Skills) 29
International Comparisons 36
Achievement Gaps 38

Chapter 3: The Political Responses 44
Increased Spending and Resources for K-12 Education 45
Increased Equity in Funding for K-12 Education 57
The Standards and Accountability Movement 71
Increased School Choice Options 76
Teacher Certification 80
Conclusions 82

Chapter 4: Court Interventions in School Finance 83
Federal Desegregation Litigation and Milliken II Remedies 84
"Equity" Cases 88
"Adequacy" Cases 95

Chapter 5: Practical Issues with Educational Adequacy 118
Defining an "Adequate" Education 118
The Element of Causation 129
Problems Relating to Remedy 136
Problems Inherent in the Makeup and Processes of the Courts 139

Chapter 6: The Effectiveness of Judicial Remedies 145
Kentucky 147
Wyoming 151
New Jersey 157
Massachusetts 166

Chapter 7: Science and School Finance Decision Making 171
A Simple Decision Model 172
How Much Is Enough? 173
How Should the Money Be Spent? 200
Using Science More Effectively 211

Chapter 8: A Performance-Based Funding System 217
Guiding Principles: Back to Basics 218
A Performance-Based Funding System 219
Big City Schools 258
Conclusions 260

Chapter 9: Making Performance-Based Funding a Reality 263
The Persistence of Illusory Spending Solutions 263
Support for the Status Quo and Resistance to Change 268
Some Current Countervailing Forces 275
Encouraging True Reform: Mutually Agreed Bargains 279
Changing the Focus of the Courts 281
Mobilizing for the Future 287

Notes 291
Legal Citations 353
Federal Court Cases (arranged in alphabetical order) 353
State Court Cases (arranged by state and, within states, chronologically) 354
Sources for Figures and Tables 361
References 363
Index 395

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File created: 4/21/2017

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