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Innovation, Intellectual Property, and Economic Growth
Christine Greenhalgh & Mark Rogers

Book Description | Reviews
Chapter 1 [in PDF format]

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Preface xi
References xvi

PART I: The Nature of Innovation 1
Chapter 1: The Nature and Importance of Innovation 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 What Is Innovation? 4
1.3 The Microeconomic Effects of Innovation 9
1.4 Interaction between Producers and Users of Innovation 16
1.5 Innovations and Market Failure 17
1.6 Restoring Incentives to Invent and Innovate 23
1.7 Firms Competing through Innovation 28
1.8 Conclusion 29
References 30

Chapter 2: The Nature and Role of Intellectual Property 32
2.1 Introduction 32
2.2 Why Are Intellectual Property Rights Awarded? 32
2.3 Patents 34
2.4 Trademarks 39
2.5 Designs and Utility Models 43
2.6 Copyright 45
2.7 Further Questions about IPRs 49
2.8 Conclusions 53
References 55

Chapter 3: The Measurement of Innovation, Productivity, and Growth 57
3.1 Introduction 57
3.2 How Can Innovation Be Measured? 58
3.3 Illustrations of Innovation Statistics 64
3.4 Productivity at the Firm, Industry, and Economy Level 70
3.5 Comparing Productivity and Growth across Countries 74
3.6 Conclusion 80
References 82

PART II: The National Innovation System 85
Chapter 4: The National Innovation System 87
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 The National Innovation System 87
4.3 The Central Role of R&D 88
4.4 The Government-University Axis 92
4.5 The University-Business Axis 95
4.6 The Government-Business Axis 103
4.7 National Innovation Systems in Emerging Markets 106
4.8 Conclusions 110
References 112

Chapter 5: Innovative Firms and Markets 116
5.1 Introduction 116
5.2 Entrepreneurship and New Firms 116
5.3 Innovation and Firms 119
5.4 Markets and Innovation 121
5.5 Empirical Evidence on the Returns to Innovation 132
5.6 Evidence on Interactions between Competition and Innovation 140
5.7 Conclusions 142
References 145

Chapter 6: Intellectual Property Rights and Firms 149
6.1 Introduction 149
6.2 How Can Firms Benefit from IPRs? 150
6.3 Exploring the Returns to IPRs 152
6.4 Markets for IPRs 157
6.5 Costs of Obtaining and Enforcing IPRs 160
6.6 IPR Strategies 162
6.7 Empirical Studies on the Value of IPRs 164
6.8 Conclusions 171
References 173

Chapter 7: Diffusion and Social Returns 177
7.1 Introduction 177
7.2 Modeling the Rate of Adoption of an Innovation 179
7.3 Statistical Evidence on Rates of Adoption 186
7.4 Spillovers and Social Returns to Innovation 190
7.5 Empirical Studies of Social Returns 199
7.6 Spatial Dimensions of Spillovers 204
7.7 Conclusions 205
References 207

PART III: The Macroeconomics of Innovation 211
Chapter 8: Models of Economic Growth 213
8.1 Introduction 213
8.2 The Neoclassical Growth Model 215
8.3 Endogenous Growth Models 225
8.4 Evolutionary and Other Models 237
8.5 Conclusions 239
References 241

Chapter 9: Innovation and Globalization 243
9.1 What Is Globalization? 243
9.2 World Trade in Historical Perspective 245
9.3 Theories of Trade and Growth 246
9.4 International Knowledge and Technology Flows: Theory and Evidence 250
9.5 International Financial Flows 256
9.6 International Aspects of IPRs 260
9.7 Conclusions 263
References 266

Chapter 10: Technology, Wages, and Jobs 268
10.1 Introduction 268
10.2 Microeconomic Models of Innovation and Labor Markets 268
10.3 Innovation and Labor Markets: Evidence from Firms 275
10.4 Macroeconomic and Trade Models of Innovation and Labor Markets 280
10.5 Conclusions 289
References 291

PART IV: Economic Policy 295
Chapter 11: Microeconomic Policies to Promote Firm-Level Innovation 297
11.1 Introduction 297
11.2 Is the Intellectual Property System Working? 297
11.3 Incentive Systems for Encouraging Firm-Level R&D 313
11.4 Other Innovation Policies 317
11.5 Conclusions 323
References 325

Chapter 12: Macroeconomic Issues and Policy 329
12.1 Introduction 329
12.2 Macroeconomic Evidence on IPRs and Economic Growth 330
12.3 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) 334
12.4 Intellectual Property Rights, Exhaustion, and Parallel Imports 340
12.5 Piracy and Counterfeit 342
12.6 R&D in the Global Economy 344
12.7 International Migration of Skilled Labor 346
12.8 Conclusions 347
References 349

Mathematical Appendix 353
A.1 Production Functions 353
A.2 Present Discounted Value 354
A.3 Derivatives 355
A.4 Marginal Products and Diminishing Returns 356
A.5 Accumulation Equations and Growth Rates 357
A.6 Logarithms and Production Functions 358
A.7 Differential Equations and a Catch-up Model 358
A.8 Estimating Production Functions 359
References 360
Index 361

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File created: 7/11/2014

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