TABLE OF CONTENTS: Acknowledgments xv Chapter One: Basic Concepts in Group Problem Solving 1 Group Task, Structure, Process, and Product 1 Interpersonal Influence Processes 3 Group Tasks 3 Additive, Compensatory, Conjunctive, Disjunctive, and Complementary 3 Divisible and Unitary 5 Maximizing and Optimizing 5 Intellective and Judgmental 5 Summary 6 Laboratory Experimental Research on Group Problem Solving 7 Overview of Chapters 7 Chapter Two: Social Combination Models 8 Marjorie Shaw's Classic Study 8 Experimental Designs 10 The Lorge and Solomon Model A 10 The Lorge and Solomon Model A as an Application of the Binomial Theorem 12 Smoke and Zajonc: Group Decision Schemes 12 Thomas and Fink: Extension to More Than Two Response Alternatives 15 Davis: Social Decision Scheme Theory 16 Model Testing and Model Fitting 19 Summary 20 Chapter Three: Memory and Group Problem Solving 22 Recognition Memory 23 Transactive Memory 25 No Communication during Learning or Retrieval 26 Communication during Retrieval 27 Communication during Learning and Retrieval 29 Nine Propositions 31 Cognitive Interdependence and Convergent Expectations 32 Shared and Unshared Information 35 Optimal Assignment of Items to Members 35 Shared and Unshared Knowledge 37 Information Sampling Model 37 Solving a Problem versus Making a Judgment 38 Social Validation of Information 38 Common Knowledge Effect 40 Group Judgment 40 Group Choice 41 Jury Memory 42 Summary 43 Chapter Four: Group Ability Composition on World Knowledge Problems 45 English Vocabulary 45 General Achievement 52 Remote Verbal Associations 53 Homogeneity and Heterogeneity of Group Member Ability 54 Conclusions on Group Ability Composition 55 Chapter Five: Collective Induction 57 An Inductive Rule-Learning Task 58 Collective versus Individual Induction: Effects of Increasing Evidence 58 Collective versus Individual Induction: Effects of Increasing Hypotheses 65 Collective Induction with Increasing Hypotheses and Increasing Evidence 67 Positive Hypothesis Tests and Negative Hypothesis Tests 70 Simultaneous Collective and Individual Induction 72 Social Combination Processes 76 A Theory of Collective Induction 80 Collective Induction in Competitive Auctions 82 Chapter Six: Letters-to-Numbers Problems 87 Letters-to-Numbers Problems 87 Letters-to-N umbers Strategies 88 Two-Letter Substitution Strategy 89 Multiletter Substitution Strategy 89 Known Answer Strategy 90 Combined Known Answer and Multiletter Substitution Strategy 91 Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals 91 Trials to Solution 91 Letters per Equation 92 Letters Identified per Equation 92 Two-Letter Substitution Strategy 93 Known Answer Strategy 93 Summary of Results 94 Discussion 95 Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals: Informative Equations and Effective Strategies 96 Five Instruction Conditions 96 Trials to Solution 98 Equations with Minimal Letters 98 Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals: Effects of Group Size 101 Previous Research on Group Size on Intellective Tasks 101 Experimental Design 103 Trials to Solution 103 Why Do Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals on Letters-to-N umbers Problems? 107 Chapter Seven: Group-to-Individual Problem-Solving Transfer 109 Specific Transfer 109 Analogies 109 Mathematical Problems 111 General Transfer 113 Mathematical Problems 113 Brainteasers 114 Logical Implication 115 Four Issues in Group-to-Individual Transfer 116 Design 119 Summary 122 Chapter Eight: Social Choice Theory 124 Basic Concepts of Social Choice Theory 125 Motions (Alternatives) and Preference Orders 125 For-Against Matrices 125 Sequential Pairwise Voting and the Paradox of Voting 126 Runoff Elections 128 Rank Order Voting 128 Approval Voting 130 The Median Voter Theorem 131 Condorcet Jury Theorem 131 Experimental Evidence for Social Choice Theory 132 The Median Voter Theorem 132 Agenda Influence 134 Condorcet Jury Theorem 136 Successive Majorities in a Hierarchical System 137 A Remarkable Concurrence 139 Social Choice Theory and Group Problem Solving: The Constitutional Convention of 1787 140 Chapter Nine: Conclusions 141 Generalizations 141 Retrospective and Prospective 142 References 145 Index 155 Return to Book Description File created: 11/22/2015 |