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Creating Wine:
The Emergence of a World Industry, 1840-1914
James Simpson

Book Description | Reviews
Chapter 1 [in PDF format]


List of Illustrations xi
List of Tables xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Maps xvii
Introduction xxxi
Weights, Measures, and Currencies xxxix
Acronyms and Abbreviations xli

Part I: Technological and Organizational Change in Europe,1840-1914 1
Chapter 1: European Wine on the Eve of the Railways 3
What Is Wine? 3
Family Producers 7
The Production of Grapes prior to Phylloxera 11
Traditional Wine-Making Technologies 17
Markets, Institutions, and Wine Consumption 21
The Development of Fine Export Wines 24

Chapter 2: Phylloxera and the Development of Scientific Viti-Viniculture 30
The Growth in Wine Consumption in Producer Countries 31
Phylloxera and the Destruction of Europe's Vines 34
Phylloxera and the International Response in Spain and Italy 41
Wine Making, Economies of Scale and the Spread of Viticulture to Hot Climates 48
La Viticulture Industrielle and Vertical Integration: Wine Production in the Midi 53

Chapter 3: Surviving Success in the Midi: Growers, Merchants, and the State 58
Phylloxera and Wine Adulteration 59
Politics, Phylloxera, and the Vineyard during France's Third Republic 63
The Midi: From Shortage to Overproduction 65
From Informal to Formal Cooperation: La Cave Cooperative Vinicole 71

Part II: The Causes of Export Failure 77
Chapter 4: Selling to Reluctant Drinkers: The British Market and the International Wine Trade 81
The Political Economy of the Wine Trade in Britain prior to 1860 83
Gladstone and the Rise and Decline in Consumption in the Late Nineteenth Century 87
The Retail Market and Product Adulteration 92
Who Controls the Chain? Experiments at "Buyer-Led" Commodity Chains 98

Part III: Institutional Innovation: Regional Appellations 107
Chapter 5: Bordeaux 111
Claret, Trade, and the Organization of Production 112
The 1855 Classification and the Branding of Claret 115
Supply Volatility, Vine Disease, and the Decline in Reputation of Fine Claret 120
Response to Overproduction: A Regional Appellation 126

Chapter 6: Champagne 132
The Myth of Dom Perignon and the Development of Champagne 134
Economies of Scale, Brands, and Marketing 138 The Response to Phylloxera 141
Organization of a Regional Appellation 145
Chapter 7: Port 154
Port and the British Market 155
Product Development and the Demands of a Mass Market 159
Rent Seeking, Fraud, and Regional Appellations 164

Chapter 8: From Sherry to Spanish White 171
The Organization of Wine Production in Jerez 172
Sherry and the British Market 178
Product Innovation and Cost Control 183
Wine Quality and the Demand for a Regional Appellation 187

Part IV: The Great Divergence: The Growth of Industrial Wine Production in the New World 191
Chapter 9: Big Business and American Wine: The California Wine Association 195
Creating Vineyards and Wineries in a Labor-Scarce Economy 197
Production Instability and the Creation of the California Wine Association 204
The California Wine Association and the Market for California's Wines 209

Chapter 10: Australia: The Tyranny of Distance and Domestic Beer Drinkers 220
Learning Grape Growing and Wine Making 221
Organization of Wine Production 225
In Search of Markets 230
Chapter 11: Argentina: New World Producers and Old World Consumers 240
Establishing the Industry 242
Redefining the Industry 248
The Limits to Growth and the Return to Crisis 256

Conclusion 263
Old World Producers and Consumers 263
New World Producers and Consumers 267
The Wine Industry in the Twentieth Century 270

Appendix 1: Vineyards and Wineries 273
A.1. Area of Vines and Output per Winery in France, 1924 and 1934 274
A.2 Number of Growers and Area of Vines by County, California, 1891 276
A.3. Winery Size in the Midi and Algeria, 1903 278

Appendix 2: Wine Prices 279
A.4. Farm and Paris Wine Prices, July 1910 279
A.5. Price List, Berry Brothers, London, 1909 281

Glossary 291
Bibliography 293
Index 313

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File created: 4/21/2017

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