TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface xi Prologue: The Earth's Space Plasma Environment P.1 The Solar Wind xiii P.2 The Magnetosphere xiii P.3 Geomagnetic Substorms xiii P.4 Plasma Density xv P.5 The Ionosphere xvi P.6 The Auroral Region xvi P.7 The Radiation Belts xviii P.8 Relevance of the Space Plasma Environment to Spacecraft Charging xviii P.9 References xx Chapter 1: Introduction to Spacecraft Charging 1.1 What Is Spacecraft Charging? 1 1.2 What Are Some Effects of Spacecraft Charging? 2 1.3 How Does Spacecraft Charging Occur? 4 1.4 Capacitance Charging 5 1.5 Other Currents 6 1.6 Where Does Spacecraft Charging Occur? 6 1.7 Exercises 9 1.8 References 10 Chapter 2: The Spacecraft as a Langmuir Probe 2.1 Orbit-Limited Attraction 11 2.2 Current Collection in Spherical Geometry 12 2.3 Current Collection in Cylindrical Geometry 13 2.4 Current Collection in Plane Geometry 13 2.5 Remarks 14 2.6 Boltzmann's Repulsion Factor 14 2.7 Child-Langmuir Saturation Current 15 2.8 Exercises 16 2.9 References 17 Chapter 3: Secondary and Backscattered Electrons 3.1 Secondary Electron Emission 18 3.2 Backscattered Electrons 20 3.3 Total Contribution of Electron Emissions 20 3.4 Remarks 22 3.5 Dependence on Incident Angle 22 3.6 Remarks on Empirical Formulae 23 3.7 Exercises 23 3.8 References 24 Chapter 4: Spacecraft Charging in a Maxwellian Plasma 4.1 Velocity Distribution 25 4.2 Critical Temperature for the Onset of Spacecraft Charging: Physical Reasoning 26 4.3 Balance of Currents 26 4.4 Charging Level 29 4.5 Equation of Current Balance in the Orbit-Limited Regime 30 4.6 Comparison with Real Satellite Data 31 4.7 Exercises 32 4.8 References 33 Chapter 5: Spacecraft Charging in a Double Maxwellian Plasma 5.1 A General Theorem on Multiple Roots 35 5.2 Double Maxwellian Space Plasma 35 5.3 Triple-Root Situation of Spacecraft Potential 36 5.4 Physical Interpretation of Triple-Root Situation 40 5.5 Triple-Root Jump in Spacecraft Potential 41 5.6 Hysteresis 42 5.7 Triple-Root Spacecraft Charging Domains 42 5.8 Exercises 46 5.9 References 46 Chapter 6: Potential Wells and Barriers 6.1 Introduction 48 6.2 Formation of Potential Wells and Barriers 48 6.3 Effects of Potential Barriers on Electron or Ion Distribution Functions 51 6.4 Interpretation of Experimental Data 51 6.5 Double Maxwellian Distribution Formed by a Potential Barrier 52 6.6 Bootstrap Charging 53 6.7 Charging in Spacecraft Wakes 56 6.8 Exercises 58 6.9 References 58 Chapter 7: Spacecraft Charging in Sunlight 7.1 Photoelectron Current 60 7.2 Surface Reflectance 60 7.3 The Prominent Solar Spectral Line 62 7.4 Can Spacecraft Charging to Negative Voltages Occur in Sunlight? 62 7.5 Spacecraft Charging to Positive Potentials 63 7.6 The Photoemission Current at Negative Spacecraft Potentials 63 7.7 The Monopole-Dipole Potential 65 7.8 Fraction of Photoemission Current Trapped 67 7.9 Competition between Monopole and Dipole 68 7.10 Measurement of Spacecraft Potential in Sunlight 68 7.11 Exercises 69 7.12 References 70 Chapter 8: Space Tethers, Plasma Contactors, and Sheath Ionization 8.1 Lorentz Force 71 8.2 Tether Moving across Ambient Magnetic Field 71 8.3 Bare and Conducting Tether 73 8.4 Floating Potential of Plasma Contactor 75 8.5 Sheath Model 75 8.6 Sheath Ionization 77 8.7 Numerical Method for Sheath Ionization Model 79 8.8 Results of Sheath Ionization 80 8.9 Comparison of Theory with Space Experiment 81 8.10 Exercises 82 8.11 References 82 Chapter 9: Surface Charging Induced by Electron Beam Impact 9.1 Impact Energy of an Electron Beam 84 9.2 Electron Beam Impact on an Initially Uncharged Surface 85 9.3 Electron Impact on an Initially Negatively Charged Surface 85 9.4 Electron Impact on an Initially Positively Charged Surface 87 9.5 Summary 89 9.6 Limitation 89 9.7 Exercises 89 9.8 References 90 Chapter 10: Spacecraft Charging Induced by Electron Beam Emission 10.1 Current Balance without Beam Emission 91 10.2 Electron Beam Emission 92 10.3 Charging to Positive Potentials 93 10.4 Remarks 94 10.5 Exercises 95 10.6 References 96 Chapter 11: Supercharging 11.1 Charging Induced by Large Beam Current Emission 97 11.2 Supercharging 99 11.3 Physical Interpretation of Experimental Results 99 11.4 Surface Charging of Booms 100 11.5 Summary 101 11.6 Exercises 101 11.7 References 102 Chapter 12: Ion Beam Emission from Spacecraft 12.1 Active Control of Spacecraft Potential 103 12.2 Return of Ion Beam 105 12.3 Lower Limit of the Reduced Potential 106 12.4 Space Charge Effect 106 12.5 Charge Exchange in Charged Particle Beams 108 12.6 Chemical Reactions in Ion Beams 110 12.7 Ion Beam in Sunlight 110 12.8 Exercises 112 12.9 References 112 Chapter 13: Discharges on Spacecraft 13.1 Introduction 114 13.2 Location of Discharges on Spacecraft 114 13.3 Surface Discharge Scaling Law 116 13.4 Differential Charging 116 13.5 "Brush Fire" Discharge 117 13.6 Paschen and Non-Paschen Discharges 118 13.7 The Townsend Criterion 119 13.8 Remark on Threshold Voltage 121 13.9 Time Evolution of a Discharge 121 13.10 Laboratory Observations on Discharges 122 13.11 Discharges Initiated by Meteor or Debris Impacts 123 13.12 Exercises 124 13.13 References 124 Chapter 14: Energetic Particle Penetration into Matter 14.1 Introduction 126 14.2 High-Energy Charged Particle Penetration into Solids 126 14.3 Physics of High-Energy Charged Particle Penetration into Matter 127 14.4 The Bohr Model of Charged Particle Interaction 127 14.5 Stopping Power 129 14.6 The Bethe-Bloch Equation 129 14.7 Range and Penetration Distance 130 14.8 Approximate Penetration Depth Formula 132 14.9 Effects of Charged Particle Penetration 133 14.10 Effects on Astronauts 134 14.11 Research Questions in High-Energy Penetration of Charged Particles into Matter 134 14.12 Exercises 134 14.13 References 135 Chapter 15: Spacecraft Anomalies 15.1 Introduction 137 15.2 Space Anomalies due to Surface Charging 137 15.3 Energy of Surface Discharge 139 15.4 Correlation with Space Environment 140 15.5 Evidence of Deep Dielectric Charging on CRRES 140 15.6 Conclusive Evidence of Deep Dielectric Charging 141 15.7 Anomalies Observed on Twin Satellites in the Radiation Belts 142 15.8 Exercises 144 15.9 References 145 Chapter 16: Deep Dielectric Charging 16.1 Introduction 146 16.2 The Importance of Deep Dielectric Charging 146 16.3 High-Energy Electron and Ion Fluxes 147 16.4 Penetration of High-Energy Charges into Materials 148 16.5 Properties of Dielectrics 149 16.6 Observations Attributed to Deep Dielectric Charging 153 16.7 Avalanche Ionization in a High Electric Field 154 16.8 Related Questions and Related Mechanisms 155 16.9 The Mott Transition 156 16.10 The Poole-Frenkel High Electric Field Effect 158 16.11 Zener Breakdown 158 16.12 Electron Fluence 160 16.13 Critical Fluence for Deep Dielectric Charging 161 16.14 Charge Density with Leakage 161 16.15 A Remark on Spacecraft Anomalies 161 16.16 Effect of Electrons Deposited inside Electronics 162 16.17 Exercises 163 16.18 References 164 Chapter 17: Charging Mitigation Methods 17.1 Introduction 166 17.2 Sharp Spike Method 166 17.3 Hot Filament Emission Method 168 17.4 Conducting Grid Method 169 17.5 Partially Conducting Paint/Surface Method 169 17.6 High Secondary Electron Yield Method 169 17.7 Electron and Ion Emission Method 169 17.8 The DSCS Charge Control Experiment 171 17.9 Vaporization Method 172 17.10 Deep Dielectric Charging 172 17.11 Exercises 172 17.12 References 173 Chapter 18: Introduction to Meteors 18.1 Size Distribution 175 18.2 Meteor Showers 175 18.3 Meteor Velocity Limits 177 18.4 Nonshower Meteors 179 18.5 Debris 179 18.6 Meteor Composition 180 18.7 Exercises 180 18.8 References 180 Chapter 19: Meteor Impacts 19.1 Kinetic Energy of Meteoric Particles 182 19.2 Depth of Penetration 182 19.3 Mitigation of Meteoric Impacts 186 19.4 Meteor Shields 186 19.5 Impact Probability of Meteors 187 19.6 Perturbation of Angular Momentum 188 19.7 Secondary Electrons and Ions by Neutral Particle Impact 188 19.8 Plasma Generation by Neutral Particle Impact 188 19.9 Sudden Spacecraft Discharge Hazards 189 19.10 Summary 191 19.11 Exercises 191 19.12 References 191 Chapter 20: Neutral Gas Release 20.1 Ionization and Recombination 194 20.2 Critical Ionization Velocity 197 20.3 Neutral Beam Stripping 199 20.4 Exercises 201 20.5 References 201 Appendixes and Addenda Appendix 1: Drift of Hot Electrons 205 Appendix 2: Transformation of Coordinates 214 Appendix 3: Normalization and Dimension of Maxwellian Distribution 215 Appendix 4: Flux Integrals 217 Appendix 5: Energy Distribution 219 Appendix 6: Sheath Engulfment 220 Appendix 7: PN Junctions 225 Appendix 8: Probability Function 229 Addendum 1: Computer Software for Spacecraft Charging Calculations 231 Addendum 2: Spacecraft Charging at Jupiter and Saturn 236 Addendum 3: Physical Constants and Conventions 240 Acknowledgments 243 Index 245 Return to Book Description File created: 8/5/2016 |