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The Age of Social Democracy:
Norway and Sweden in the Twentieth Century
Francis Sejersted
Translated by Richard Daly with editing by Madeleine B. Adams

Book Description | Reviews
Introduction [in PDF format]


Acknowledgments ix
Introduction 1
The Many Faces of Modernization--The Scandinavian Solution--Three Phases--National Characteristics--Overview of the Book

PART I: 1905-1940: Growth and Social Integration

CHAPTER 1: Dreaming the Land of the Future 15
Norsk Hydro--Science and Modernization--Industrialization, a Natural Process for Sweden--Norway Follows Hesitantly--Emigration and Industrialization--The Norrland Debate--The Norwegian Concession Laws--Electricity, the Basisfor Technological Modernization--War and Structural Problems--Thrust forSocialization--Consolidation of Two Different Structures--Rationalization--Technocracy--Dreaming the Land of the Future

CHAPTER 2: National Integration and Democracy 50
The Question of Political Democracy in the Period around 1905--Mobilizing the Public--Training for Democracy--Toward an Integrated School System in Norway--Contrasting the Two Countries--Karl Staaff and the Question of Suffrage in Sweden--Arvid Lindman and the Question of Universal Suffrage--The Difficult Road to Parliamentarianism--Gunnar Knudsen and State Capitalism--Currents of Antiparliamentarianism--The Farmers and Modernization--Farmers on the Offensive: Norway--Farmers on the Offensive: Sweden--Crisis Settlement in Both Countries--Women and Civil and Political Rights--The Integration of Minorities: The Sami--The Integration of Minorities: Refugees from Germany--National Integration and Democracy

CHAPTER 3: Assistance for Self-Help 99
The Conceptual Basis for Social Policy--A Great Preventive Project--Health Insurance--National Pension Plans--Unemployment Insurance--Population Crisis?--The Politics of Sterilization--Assistance for Self-Help

CHAPTER 4: Revolution or Reform 122
The Last Great Popular Movement--Working-Class Culture--Marxist Rhetoric and Reformist Practice--An Indistinct Policy--From One's Own Home to the People's Home: The Labor Movement and the Land Question--Hjalmar Branting--The Big Strike of 1909--The Party Is Split--Martin Tranmæl--Worker Scandinavianism--How Radical?--"A Peculiar Legalization Activity"--The Level of Conflict Escalates--The Solidarity Game Is Established--Per Albin Hansson and the "People's Home"--Johan Nygaardsvold and the People's Party--The Expansionism of the Crisis Policy as Ideology--Revolution or Reform

CHAPTER 5: Distance and Proximity 173
Distance--Proximity--World War I--An Expanded Home Market?--A Nordic Defense Alliance?

PART II: 1940-1970: The Golden Age of Social Democracy

CHAPTER 6: Cooperation in a Menacing World 185
Not the Same War--The Cold War--Still Not the Same War?--The Internal Danger and Surveillance--A New Drive for a Nordic Customs Union--SAS: A Success Story--Despite Everything, a Flourishing Collaboration--Cooperation in a Menacing World

CHAPTER 7: "The Most Dynamic Force for Social Development" 205
Class Society in Transformation I--Class Society in Transformation II--"The Most Dynamic Force for Social Development"--The Vision of the Atomic Age--Sweden: A Winner Nation--The Wallenberg System--Swedish Labor Market Policy--The Norwegian State and the Labor Market--Focusing on Natural Conditions--To "Play Wallenberg" in Norway--An Attempt to Create a Norwegian Knowledge Industry--Successful Industrial Policy?--The Social Democratic Urban Landscape--TheSuburban Towns--Who Can Save the City?--The Triumph of Reason

CHAPTER 8: The Crowning Glory 241
Technocracy and the Welfare State--Children and the Family--The Radicalism of the Myrdals--The Era of the Nuclear Family--The Housewife Contract under Pressure--The Struggle over the Compulsory General Supplementary Pension (ATP)--Agreement on Social Security--Why Standard Security?--The "Evangian" Health Policy--Swedish Health Policy--Good Family Housing--Social Democracy's Happy Moment

CHAPTER 9: What Kind of People Do We Need? 267
Sweden and Norway, One School-Nation--A Break with the Past?--What Kind of Equality?--Integration and Normality--Several Dilemmas under the Surface--An Unsuccessful Integration Drive--Marginalized Universities--Swedish University Reform--Norwegian University Reform--The Social Democratic People's Church--Church and Morals--Which Is More Important--Health or Salvation?--What Kind of Human Being?

CHAPTER 10: Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy 289
Tage Erlander and Einar Gerhardsen--The Struggle over the Planned Economy in Sweden--The Struggle over the Planned Economy in Norway--A Social Democratic Constitution--Corporatism and Economic Democracy--The New Administrative Corporatism--How Democratic?--The Double Strategy of Business and Industry--An Ideological Counterthrust--Social Democracy as a Consumer Society--Taxation Socialism--Capitalism without Capitalists?--Credit Socialism or Indicative Planning?--An Order in Its Own Right

PART III: 1970-2000: A Richer Reality

CHAPTER 11: A Difficult Modernity 333
A Decade of Conflict--The Social Democrats Reply--The Risk Society--Sweden and Nuclear Power--Norway and Natural Gas Energy--The Nordic Energy Market--Norway Becomes an Oil Nation--Heavy-Handed Discrimination--Sweden Loses Its Leading Position--New Policy: A Turnabout?--Successful Policy?--A Difficult Modernity

CHAPTER 12: What Happened to Economic Democracy? 361
Corporatism under Pressure--Nevertheless, a Change of Model?--Industrial Democracy--Self-determination--Wage Earner Funds--a Radical Move--Weakened Administrative Corporatism--Labor Power for a Better Competitive Edge--Social Democracy in a Globalized Economy--A Weak Milieu of Private Ownership--State Ownership--An Ambiguous Development

CHAPTER 13: From Equality to Freedom 388
The Welfare State under Pressure--The Changing Character of Social Policy--The Hunt for the Lost Sense of Community--The Jewel Is Removed from the Crown--Does Norway Follow Suit?--From an Emigration Society to an Immigration Society--The Establishment of an Immigration Policy--A Political Minefield--The Policy Is Revised--Toward the Two-Income Family--The Great Dispute over the Cash Benefit Plan--Gender Equality Lite--A School for the Weakest--Gudmund Hernes--a Parenthesis--Toward the Dissolution of the Comprehensive School--The Universities and Market Logic--From Equality to Freedom

CHAPTER 14: The Return of Politics 431
Two Perspectives--Is Democratic Power Disintegrating?--A Weakened Party System--New Forms of Participation--Social Democracy's Media System--The Great Release--Threats to Independence--The Media-Biased Society--The Decay of the General Public?--The Youth Rebellion--Feminism--Marxism-Leninism--Constitutionalism Rediscovered--The Return of the Values Debate--Jesus--a Social Democrat?--The Common Good--A Showdown with the Past--The Return of Politics

CHAPTER 15: The Last "Soviet States"? 468
A Large-Scale Cooperative Effort--The Volvo Agreement: Another Unsuccessful Campaign--Toward a Nordic Economic Region?--Europe--Why Did Sweden Reverse Its Policy on Europe?--The Last "Soviet States"?--After Social Democracy: Toward New Social Structures? 484
A Success--but Not Exclusively So--Social Democracy's Liberal Inheritance--The Institutional Structures under Pressure--The Freedom and Rights Revolution--What Kind of Freedom?--High Score--Toward New Structures?--Politics Matter
Bibliography 503
Index 533

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File created: 11/11/2014

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