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Solid Biomechanics
Roland Ennos

Book Description | Reviews
Chapter 1 [in PDF format]

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii

PART 1 Understanding Elasticity

Chapter 1: The Properties of Materials 3
Forces: Dynamics and Statics 3
Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Materials 4
Determining Material Properties 7
Loading, Unloading, and Energy Storage 8
The Effect of Direction 11
Changes in Shape during Axial Loading 11
Shear 12
Performing Material Tests 14
Failure and Breaking 17
Stress Concentrations and Notch Sensitivity 17
Energy Changes and the Work of Fracture 19
Measuring Work of Fracture 21
Comparing the Properties of Materials 24

PART 2 Biological Materials

Chapter 2: Biological Rubbers 29
The Problem of Raw Materials 29
Biological Polymers 30
The Shape and Behavior of Random-Coil Chains 32
The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Rubbers 32
Biological Protein Rubbers 35
Resilin 35
Abductin 37
Elastin 38

Chapter 3: Complex Polymers 42
The Mechanics of Polymers 42
Investigating Polymer Behavior 44
A Typical Polymer: Sea Anemone Mesoglea 46
Mucus and Gels 48
Making Protein Polymers Stiffer 51
Silks 53

Chapter 4: Polymer Composites 59
Combining Materials 59
The Behavior of Soft Composites 59
Natural Soft Composites 62
Rigid Composites 66
Keratinous Structures 68
The Theory of Fillers and Discontinuous Composites 74
Insect Cuticle 75
The Plant Cell Wall 79
Wood 80

Chapter 5: Composites Incorporating Ceramics 83
The Advantages of Incorporating Minerals 83
Spicule-Reinforced Connective Tissue 83
Bone 84
Tooth Ceramics 88
Mollusk Shell 89
PART 3 Biological Structures

Chapter 6: Tensile Structures 95
An Introduction to Structures 95
Ropes and Strings 95
Using Multiple Ropes 97
Membranes, Skins, and Plates 98
Resisting Out-of-Plane Forces 102
Stresses in Pipes, Cylinders, and Spheres 103
The Design of Arteries 105
The Design of Lungs 107
The Design of Swim Bladders 108
The Design of Gas Vesicles 109

Chapter 7: Hydrostatic Skeletons 111
The Advantages of Being Pressurized 111
Cartilage 111
The Hydrostatic Skeletons of Plants 112
Cylindrical Pressure Vessels 113
Pressure Vessels with Orthogonal Fibers 113
Muscular Hydrostats 115
Helically Wound Cylinders 115
Helical Fibers to Control Growth and Shape 116
Helical Fibers as Muscle Antagonists 119
Fibers as Limits to Movement 121

Chapter 8: Structures in Bending 123
The Complexity of Bending 123
Simple Beam Theory 123
The Four-Point Bending Test 125
The Three-Point Bending Test 126
The Consequences of Simple Beam Theory 128
Fracture in Bending 134
Shear in Beams 135
The Consequences of Shear 138
Biological Trusses 139
Optimal Taper and the Scaling of Cantilever Beams 143

Chapter 9: Structures in Compression 147
Material Failure in Compression 147
Structural Failure in Compression 147
The Buckling of Struts 148
Buckling within Structures 152
Cork 157

Chapter 10: Structures in Torsion 159
Torsional Stresses and Strains 159
Torsion Tests 160
The Effect of Cross Section 162
Designs That Resist Torsion 162
Designs That Facilitate Torsion 163
The Mechanics of Spiral Springs 165
The Torsional Rigidity of Plates 166

Chapter 11: Joints and Levers 170
Support and Flexibility 170
Passive Movement in Plants 170
Active Movement in Plants 171
Hinges in Animals 172
Moving Joints 175

PART 4 Mechanical Interactions

Chapter 12: Attachments 183
Holding On 183
Hooking On 183
Attachments to Soft Substrates 184
Attachments to Particulate Substrates 185
Attachments to Hard, Flat Surfaces 189

Chapter 13: Interactions with the Mechanical Environment 198
Optimizing Design for Strength 198
Factors of Safety 198
How Optimization is Achieved 201

Chapter 14: Mechanical Interactions between Organisms 206
Biotic Interactions 206
The Mechanics of Climbing Plants 206
The Mechanics of Fungal Hyphae and Appressoria 209
Plant Defenses against Fungi 210
Food Processing by Animals 210
Adaptations of Potential Food 212
Other Biotic Interactions 215
PART 5 Looking Forward

Chapter 15: The Future of Structural Biomechanics 219
Successes 219
Limitations and Future Developments 219
New Frontiers for Biomechanics 222

Glossary 223
References 231
Index 247

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File created: 11/11/2014

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