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Global Environment:
Water, Air, and Geochemical Cycles
Elizabeth Kay Berner & Robert A. Berner

Book Description | Reviews
Preface [in PDF format] | Chapter 1 [in PDF format]


Preface to the Second Edition xiii

Chapter 1. Introduction to the Global Environment:
The Water and Energy Cycles and Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation 1
Introduction 1
The Global Water Cycle 2
Major Water Masses 2
Fluxes between Reservoirs 2
Geographic Variations in Precipitation and Evaporation 4
The Energy Cycle 7
Introduction 7
Radiation and Energy Balance 7
Variations in Solar Radiation: The Atmospheric and Oceanic Heat Engine 11
Circulation of the Atmosphere 14
Oceanic Circulation 16
Introduction 16
Wind-Driven (Shallow) Circulation 17
Coastal Upwelling 19
Thermohaline (Deep) Circulation 19

Chapter 2. Air Chemistry: The Greenhouse Effect and the Ozone Hole 24
Atmospheric Gases 24
Carbon Dioxide 26
Present and Future CO2 and the Surficial Carbon Cycle 26
Past CO2 Levels 36
Other Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrous Oxide 39
Other Greenhouse Gases: Halogens and
Tropospheric Ozone 46
Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Factors 47
Climatic Effects of Radiative Forcing: Climate Sensitivity, Global Warming, and Hydrologic Changes 48
Observed Changes in Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation 50
Observed Changes in the Water Cycle: Water Vapor, Precipitation, Streamflow, and Storms 52
Observed Changes in Ice, Sea Level and the Oceans 54
Predictions for Future Climate Change 57
Aerosols 59
Aerosol Cloud Effects 60
Types of Aerosols 61
Gaseous Emissions 62
Sulfate Aerosols 62
Black Carbon Aerosols 63
Organic Carbon Aerosols 65
Biomass Burning Aerosols 65
Nitrate Aerosols 65
Mineral Dust Aerosols 66
Sea-Salt Aerosols 67
Surface Dimming by Aerosols 68
Aerosols and the Hydrologic Cycle 68
Black Carbon Aerosols and Snow Cover 69
Ozone and the Ozone Hole 69
Stratospheric Ozone: The Ozone Hole 70
Tropospheric Ozone: Air Pollution 76

Chapter 3. Air Chemistry: Rainwater, Acid Rain, and the Atmospheric Cycles of Sulfur and Nitrogen 79
Introduction 79
Formation of Rain (and Snow) 80
Water Vapor in the Atmosphere 80
Condensation 83
Sublimation 84
Rain (and Snow) Formation 84
Air Motion in Cloud Formation 85
Chemical Composition of Rainwater: General Characteristics 85
Cl-, Na+, Mg++, Ca++ and K+ in Rain 92
Gases and Rain 102
Sulfate in Rain: The Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle 102
Sea-Salt Sulfate 103
U.S. Sulfur Emissions 104
Conversion of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate in Rain 107
Biogenic Reduced Sulfur 108
Other Sulfur Sources: Biomass Burning, Volcanism, and Soil Dust 109
Sulfur Deposition on Land 110
Anthropogenic Sulfur Deposition in the United States 111
Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle: Human Perturbation 113
Radiative Forcing from Sulfate Aerosol 115
The Atmospheric Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen in Rain 116
N2, Nitrogen Fixation, Denitrification, and Total Nitrogen Fluxes 116
Nitrogen Cycle: Anthropogenic Changes and Climate 120
Atmospheric Nox and Nitrate in Rain 120
Nitrate in Rain: Anthropogenic Sources 123
Nitrate Deposition in Rain and the Nitrate-Nitrogen Cycle 126
Ammonium in Rain: Atmospheric Ammonium-Nitrogen Cycle 130
Ammonium in Rain 133
Reactive N Deposition 135
Acid Rain 137
The pH of Natural Rainwater 138
Acid Rain from Pollution 140
Acid Rain in Europe 141
Acid Rain in the United States from 1955 to 1985 142
Acid Deposition Changes in the United States from 1980 to 2007 144
Acid Rain in Other Parts of the World 145
Distinguishing Naturally Acid Rain from That Due to Pollution 146
Effects of Acid Rain 149

Chapter 4. Chemical Weathering: Minerals, Plants, and Water Chemistry 151
Introduction 151
Biogeochemical Cycling in Forests 153
Soil Water and Microorganisms: Acid Production 158
Chemical Weathering 159
Minerals Involved in Weathering 159
Silicate Weathering Reactions: Secondary Mineral Formation 162
Mechanism of Silicate Dissolution 168
Rate of Silicate Weathering 171
Silicate Weathering: Soil Formation 176
Carbonate Weathering 178
Sulfide Weathering 179
Groundwaters and Weathering 181
Garrels's Model for the Composition of Groundwaters from Igneous rocks 182

Chapter 5. Rivers 185
Introduction 185
Components of River Water 185
River Runoff 186
Major World Rivers 188
Suspended Matter in Rivers 190
Amount of Suspended Matter 190
Human Influence 195
Chemical Composition of Suspended Matter 198
Chemical Composition of Rivers 201
World Average River Water 201
Chemical Classification of Rivers 202
Relief and River-Water Composition 212
Major Dissolved Components of River Water 213
Chloride and Cyclic Salt 213
Sodium 216
Potassium 217
Calcium and Magnesium 219
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 220
Silica 222
Sulfate 227
Sulfate Pollution and Acidic Rivers 229
Organic Matter in Rivers: Organic Acidity 232
Organic Acid Rivers 236
Chemical and Total Denudation of the Continents as Deduced from River-Water Composition 237
Nutrients in River Water 241
Nitrogen in Rivers: The Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle 242
Reactive Nitrogen Deposition and River Transport in the United States 249
Phosphorus In Rivers: The Terrestrial Phosphorus Cycle 250

Chapter 6. Lakes 257
Physical Processes in Lakes 257
Water Balance 257
Thermal Regimes and Lake Classification 259
Lake Models 264
Biological Processes in Lakes as They Affect Water Composition 269
Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Biological Cycling 269
Eutrophication 272
Limiting Nutrients 275
Sources of Phosphorus in Lakes 279
Pollutive Changes in Major Lakes: Potential Loading 285
Acid Lakes 287
Changes in Acid Lakes in the Northeastern and Upper Midwestern United States 291
Changes in Acid Lakes in Europe 292
Naturally Acid Lakes 293
Chemical Composition of Acid Lakes 294
Saline and Alkaline Lakes 298

Chapter 7. Marginal Marine Environments: Estuaries 303
Introduction 303
Estuaries: Circulation and Classification 303
The Black Sea 307
Estuarine Chemistry: Conservative vs Nonconservative
Mixing 308
Estuarine Chemical Processes 311
Inorganic (Nonbiogenic) Removal in Estuaries 311
Biogenic Nutrients in Estuaries 314
Limiting Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silica 317
Eutrophication from Nutrient Pollution of Estuaries 321
Coastal Hypoxia from Nutrient Loading and Eutrophication 324
Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication 329
Suspended Sediment Deposition in Marginal Marine Environments 330
Antiestuaries and Evaporite Deposition 335

Chapter 8. The Oceans 339
Introduction 339
Chemical Composition of Seawater 339
pH and the Human Acidification of the Oceans 343
Modeling Seawater Composition 344
Sillen's Equilibrium Model 344
Oceanic Box Models 345
Continuum Models 347
Energy Sources for Chemical Reactions 347
Major Processes of Seawater Modification 348
Biological Processes 349
Volcanic-Seawater Reaction 360
Interaction with Detrital Solids 365
Chemical Budgets for Individual Elements 369
Summary of Processes 369
Chloride 370
Sodium 371
Sulfur 372
Magnesium 374
Potassium 375
Calcium 376
Bicarbonate 381
Silica 382
Phosphorus 384
Nitrogen 386

References 389
Index 435

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File created: 4/21/2017

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