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Of Empires and Citizens:
Pro-American Democracy or No Democracy at All?
Amaney A. Jamal

Book Description | Reviews
Preface [in PDF format]

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

List of Tables and Figures ix
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
A Note on Transliteration xv


CHAPTER ONE
Introduction: Pro- American Democracy or No Democracy at All? 1
The U.S. Strategic Approach to Democracy 3
Revisiting the Classical Models: Theoretical Limitations 12
Newer Democratization Debates 12
Revisiting State and Society Relations in Clientelistic Settings: Real Congruence
     versus Contrived Congruence
19
Empirical Realities: Jordan and Kuwait 21
U.S. Dominance in the Arab World 23
Anti-Americanism as the Independent Variable: Jordan and Kuwait 29
Scope Condition, Case- Selection Strategy, Data, and Evidence 34
Appendix: Human Development Index Scores and Jordan's Gross
Domestic Product
     Growth Rate
36

CHAPTER TWO
Becoming Jordan and Kuwait: The Making and Consolidating of U.S. Client Regimes 38
Jordan's History of Clientelistic Dependence 41
Post-World War II: Full Independence for Jordan but Continued Reliance on
     the British
43
Economic Devastation after the First Gulf War 46
Economic Progress and the Jordan- Israeli Peace Treaty, 1994 48
Continued Military and Economic Assistance: Increased Dependency 52
Kuwait's History of Clientelistic Dependence 54
The Iraqi Occupation of Kuwait and the Limits of Pan-Arabism 57

CHAPTER THREE
Islamist Momentum in the Arab World: Jordan's Islamic Action Front and Kuwait's Islamic Constitutional Movement 63
Islamists and Anti- American Positions across the Arab World 64
The IAF and its Anti-American Positions 66
IAF Support 69
The 1994 Peace Treaty with Israel 73
Other Islamist Forces in Jordan 78
Regime- IAF Relations: Democracy in Retreat 79
U.S. Policy and Islamists: Pro- American Democracy or No Democracy at All? 86
Kuwait's Islamist Movement: A Pro-American Force 89
Islamists and Their Positions: Democratic Deepening in Kuwait 92
Democratic Successes and Advancements: Female Suffrage, Redistricting, and      Succession 94
Regime- Islamist Relations in Kuwait 100

CHAPTER FOUR
Engaging the Regime through the Lens of the United States: Citizens' Political Preferences 103
Causal Logics Citizens Employ When Engaging Possibilities of Regime
Change
104
Support for the Monarchy and U.S. Clientelism: Jordan 106
Support for the Monarchy and U.S. Clientelism: Kuwait 113
Supporting the Regime versus Supporting Democracy: Jordan 116
Supporting the Regime versus Supporting Democracy: Kuwait 121
The Geopolitics of Support for Shari'a: Different Islamic Worldviews in Jordan and      Kuwait 128
Exploring Alternative Explanations 134
Conclusion 136
Appendix: Open- Ended Questionnaire Administered in Jordan, Kuwait,
and
     Morocco
137

CHAPTER FIVE
Support for Democracy and Authoritarianism: The Geostrategic Utility of Cooperative Leadership 142
Jordanian and Kuwaiti Engagements with Security, Democracy, and
     Authoritarianism
144
Main Argument: Given Dependence on the United States, Opposition Opinion and      Mobilization Strategies Matter 147
Islamism and Anti-Americanism 153
Anti Americanism and Support for Democracy or Authoritarianism 155
Appendix: Macro-micro Synthesis-- The Relationship between Attitudes
and Regime      Outcomes
166

CHAPTER SIX
Morocco: Support for the Status Quo 174
Moroccan International Clientelism 175
Islamist Positions in Morocco 177
Anti-American Sentiment 178
Islamist Popularity and Positions 180
Voices from within: Political Engagement and the Regime in Morocco 182
U.S. Responses to the Islamists in Morocco 190

CHAPTER SEVEN
Palestine and Saudi Arabia and the Limits of Democracy 191
Fatah's Decline and the Victory of Hamas 193
The U.S. Response to Hamas 198
Why Did the Palestinians Vote for Hamas? 199
Saudi Arabia and Its Status Quo Advantage 203
Islamist Positions in Saudi Arabia 208
Regime Responses, the Reform Movement, and the United States 211
The Role of the United States 214
Conclusion 219
Appendix: Questions from the PSR Poll 220

CHAPTER EIGHT
The Influence of International Context on Domestic- Level Models of Regime Transition and Democratic Consolidation 221
Theorizing about Nonclient Regimes 223
Egypt's Future Democratic Consolidation 224
The Clash of Civilizations and the Search for Liberal and Secular Democrats 227
Iran's Influence 231
Possible Paths Forward 232
Ignoring Arab Public Opinion and the Islamist Response 233
The Lesson of Latin America 238
Reassessing U.S. Policies in the Arab World 239
From Bush to Obama 241
Where Do We Go Next? 242

Bibliography 245
Index 267

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File created: 4/28/2016

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