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Of Empires and Citizens:
Pro-American Democracy or No Democracy at All?
Amaney A. Jamal

Book Description | Reviews
Preface [in PDF format]

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

List of Tables and Figures ix
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
A Note on Transliteration xv


CHAPTER ONE
Introduction: Pro- American Democracy or No Democracy at All? 1
     The U.S. Strategic Approach to Democracy 3
     Revisiting the Classical Models: Theoretical Limitations 12
     Newer Democratization Debates 12
     Revisiting State and Society Relations in Clientelistic Settings: Real Congruence
     versus Contrived Congruence
19
     Empirical Realities: Jordan and Kuwait 21
     U.S. Dominance in the Arab World 23
     Anti-Americanism as the Independent Variable: Jordan and Kuwait 29
     Scope Condition, Case- Selection Strategy, Data, and Evidence 34
     Appendix: Human Development Index Scores and Jordan's Gross Domestic Product
     Growth Rate
36

CHAPTER TWO
Becoming Jordan and Kuwait: The Making and Consolidating of U.S. Client Regimes 38
     Jordan's History of Clientelistic Dependence 41
     Post–World War II: Full Independence for Jordan but Continued Reliance on
     the British
43
     Economic Devastation after the First Gulf War 46
     Economic Progress and the Jordan- Israeli Peace Treaty, 1994 48
     Continued Military and Economic Assistance: Increased Dependency 52
     Kuwait's History of Clientelistic Dependence 54
     The Iraqi Occupation of Kuwait and the Limits of Pan-Arabism 57

CHAPTER THREE
Islamist Momentum in the Arab World: Jordan's Islamic Action Front and Kuwait's Islamic Constitutional Movement 63
     Islamists and Anti- American Positions across the Arab World 64
     The IAF and its Anti-American Positions 66
     IAF Support 69
     The 1994 Peace Treaty with Israel 73
     Other Islamist Forces in Jordan 78
     Regime- IAF Relations: Democracy in Retreat 79
     U.S. Policy and Islamists: Pro- American Democracy or No Democracy at All? 86
     Kuwait's Islamist Movement: A Pro-American Force 89
     Islamists and Their Positions: Democratic Deepening in Kuwait 92
     Democratic Successes and Advancements: Female Suffrage, Redistricting, and      Succession 94
     Regime- Islamist Relations in Kuwait 100

CHAPTER FOUR
Engaging the Regime through the Lens of the United States: Citizens' Political Preferences 103
     Causal Logics Citizens Employ When Engaging Possibilities of Regime Change 104
     Support for the Monarchy and U.S. Clientelism: Jordan 106
     Support for the Monarchy and U.S. Clientelism: Kuwait 113
     Supporting the Regime versus Supporting Democracy: Jordan 116
     Supporting the Regime versus Supporting Democracy: Kuwait 121
     The Geopolitics of Support for Shari'a: Different Islamic Worldviews in Jordan and      Kuwait 128
     Exploring Alternative Explanations 134
     Conclusion 136
     Appendix: Open- Ended Questionnaire Administered in Jordan, Kuwait, and
     Morocco
137

CHAPTER FIVE
Support for Democracy and Authoritarianism: The Geostrategic Utility of Cooperative Leadership 142
     Jordanian and Kuwaiti Engagements with Security, Democracy, and
     Authoritarianism
144
     Main Argument: Given Dependence on the United States, Opposition Opinion and      Mobilization Strategies Matter 147
     Islamism and Anti-Americanism 153
     Anti Americanism and Support for Democracy or Authoritarianism 155
     Appendix: Macro-micro Synthesis-- The Relationship between Attitudes and Regime      Outcomes 166

CHAPTER SIX
Morocco: Support for the Status Quo 174
     Moroccan International Clientelism 175
     Islamist Positions in Morocco 177
     Anti-American Sentiment 178
     Islamist Popularity and Positions 180
     Voices from within: Political Engagement and the Regime in Morocco 182
     U.S. Responses to the Islamists in Morocco 190

CHAPTER SEVEN
Palestine and Saudi Arabia and the Limits of Democracy 191
     Fatah's Decline and the Victory of Hamas 193
     The U.S. Response to Hamas 198
     Why Did the Palestinians Vote for Hamas? 199
     Saudi Arabia and Its Status Quo Advantage 203
     Islamist Positions in Saudi Arabia 208
     Regime Responses, the Reform Movement, and the United States 211
     The Role of the United States 214
     Conclusion 219
     Appendix: Questions from the PSR Poll 220

CHAPTER EIGHT
The Influence of International Context on Domestic- Level Models of Regime Transition and Democratic Consolidation 221
     Theorizing about Nonclient Regimes 223
     Egypt's Future Democratic Consolidation 224
     The Clash of Civilizations and the Search for Liberal and Secular Democrats 227
     Iran's Influence 231
     Possible Paths Forward 232
     Ignoring Arab Public Opinion and the Islamist Response 233
     The Lesson of Latin America 238
     Reassessing U.S. Policies in the Arab World 239
     From Bush to Obama 241
     Where Do We Go Next? 242

Bibliography 245
Index 267

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File created: 7/11/2014

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