Debates about U.S. foreign policy have revolved around three main traditions--liberal internationalism, realism, and nationalism. In this book, distinguished political scientist Henry Nau delves deeply into a fourth, overlooked foreign policy tradition that he calls "conservative internationalism." This approach spreads freedom, like liberal internationalism; arms diplomacy, like realism; and preserves national sovereignty, like nationalism. It targets a world of limited government or independent "sister republics," not a world of great power concerts or centralized international institutions.
Nau explores conservative internationalism in the foreign policies of Thomas Jefferson, James Polk, Harry Truman, and Ronald Reagan. These presidents did more than any others to expand the arc of freedom using a deft combination of force, diplomacy, and compromise. Since Reagan, presidents have swung back and forth among the main traditions, overreaching under Bush and now retrenching under Obama. Nau demonstrates that conservative internationalism offers an alternative way. It pursues freedom but not everywhere, prioritizing situations that border on existing free countries--Turkey, for example, rather than Iraq. It uses lesser force early to influence negotiations rather than greater force later after negotiations fail. And it reaches timely compromises to cash in military leverage and sustain public support.
A groundbreaking revival of a neglected foreign policy tradition, Conservative Internationalism shows how the United States can effectively sustain global leadership while respecting the constraints of public will and material resources.
Henry R. Nau is professor of political science and international affairs in the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University. His many books include The Myth of America's Decline, At Home Abroad, and Perspectives on International Relations.
"In the wake of Syria-related brinkmanship, it is easy to see, at the moment, how enduringly important it is to manage force in human affairs. . . . [Nau] identifies six traditions in American diplomatic history and connects each to at least one important president whose policies capture the tradition's outlook . . . the general reader can learn a good deal . . ."--Wall Street Journal
"In this book, Henry Nau accomplishes the seemingly impossible, by recovering conservative internationalism as one of America's long-standing and respected foreign policy traditions. In eliciting vigorous engagement from all political sides, his dispassionate and learned book makes us reexamine some of our most cherished assumptions about core aspects of world politics. No serious student of American foreign policy can afford not to read this book closely."--Peter J. Katzenstein, Cornell University
"Henry Nau is one of our wisest scholars of international relations, and that wisdom is on full display here. Cutting across today's exhausted political categories, his book is a vision of limited government and personal liberty at home and abroad, achieved through an international engagement pioneered by Thomas Jefferson and developed by three of America's most successful presidents. It is a vision that will surprise and challenge conservatives, liberals, and realists alike."--John Owen, University of Virginia
"Arguing for the existence and advantages of a distinct American foreign policy tradition called conservative internationalism, this book is engaging, very well organized, and entirely relevant to current U.S. foreign policy problems. Grounded in a serious reading of the historical literature, and informed by a clear awareness of the main theoretical debates on the subject, this work is a worthy contribution to the field. There is no other book like it."--Colin Dueck, George Mason University
Table of Contents:
Introduction - Traditions of the Eagle 1
Chapter 1 What Is Conservative Internationalism? 11
Chapter 2 America's Foreign Policy Traditions 39
Chapter 3 Recent Presidents: The Pendulum Swings 61
Chapter 4 Thomas Jefferson: Empire of Liberty 81
Chapter 5 James K. Polk: Manifest Destiny 110
Chapter 6 Harry S. Truman: Liberty in Western Europe 147
Chapter 7 Ronald Reagan: Liberty in Eastern Europe 171
Conclusion - Freedom and Force 201