In July 2010, Terry Jones, the pastor of a small fundamentalist church in Florida, announced plans to burn two hundred Qur’ans on the anniversary of the September 11 attacks. Though he ended up canceling the stunt in the face of widespread public backlash, his threat sparked violent protests across the Muslim world that left at least twenty people dead. In Terrified, Christopher Bail demonstrates how the beliefs of fanatics like Jones are inspired by a rapidly expanding network of anti-Muslim organizations that exert profound influence on American understanding of Islam.
Bail traces how the anti-Muslim narrative of the political fringe has captivated large segments of the American media, government, and general public, validating the views of extremists who argue that the United States is at war with Islam and marginalizing mainstream Muslim-Americans who are uniquely positioned to discredit such claims. Drawing on cultural sociology, social network theory, and social psychology, he shows how anti-Muslim organizations gained visibility in the public sphere, commandeered a sense of legitimacy, and redefined the contours of contemporary debate, shifting it ever outward toward the fringe. Bail illustrates his pioneering theoretical argument through a big-data analysis of more than one hundred organizations struggling to shape public discourse about Islam, tracing their impact on hundreds of thousands of newspaper articles, television transcripts, legislative debates, and social media messages produced since the September 11 attacks. The book also features in-depth interviews with the leaders of these organizations, providing a rare look at how anti-Muslim organizations entered the American mainstream.
Christopher Bail is assistant professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
"The book not only lays bare the behind-the-scenes story of a momentous shift in public opinion, it employs cutting-edge computer analysis techniques applied to large archives of data to develop a new theoretical outlook, capable of making sense of the whole field of competing organizations struggling to shape public opinion, not just studying one or two the most successful ones. The result is not only a detailed account of a specific, significant, and also very pernicious example of cultural evolution, but also a case study in how to more rigorously study cultural evolution more generally in the future."--Paul Rosenberg, Salon
"Bail quite effectively shows how and why anti-Muslim content and ‘experts’ worked their way into positions of prominence, even though they were not well funded or well connected in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. Terrified is highly recommended for all levels."--Choice
"A fascinating exploration of the rising influence of anti- Muslim fringe organizations in the United States after September 11, 2001. . . . This book represents a veritable methodological primer for researchers interested in measuring collective meaning."--Mary-Hunter McDonnell, Administrative Science Quarterly
"Terrified is a major contribution to the scholarship on the public influence of anti-Muslin organizations and the role of the media in empowering them."--Todd Green, Political Science Quarterly
"In this groundbreaking and methodologically sophisticated book, Christopher Bail traces the emergence and proliferation of anti-Muslim organizations from the periphery to the mainstream, describing their influence on the media, public policy, and popular culture. Terrified is a must-read."--John L. Esposito, author of The Future of Islam
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