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Unequal Gains:
American Growth and Inequality since 1700
Peter H. Lindert & Jeffrey G. Williamson

Paperback | November 2017 | $22.95 | £18.95 | ISBN: 9780691178271
424 pp. | 6 x 9 1/4 | 30 b/w illus., 78 tables
Hardcover | 2016 | $35.00 | £27.95 | ISBN: 9780691170497
424 pp. | 6 x 9 1/4 | 30 line illus. 66 tables.
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Unequal Gains offers a radically new understanding of the economic evolution of the United States, providing a complete picture of the uneven progress of America from colonial times to today.

While other economic historians base their accounts on American wealth, Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson focus instead on income—and the result is a bold reassessment of the American economic experience. America has been exceptional in its rising inequality after an egalitarian start, but not in its long-run growth.

America had already achieved world income leadership by 1700, not just in the twentieth century as is commonly thought. Long before independence, American colonists enjoyed higher living standards than Britain—and America's income advantage today is no greater than it was three hundred years ago. But that advantage was lost during the Revolution, lost again during the Civil War, and lost a third time during the Great Depression, though it was regained after each crisis. In addition, Lindert and Williamson show how income inequality among Americans rose steeply in two great waves—from 1774 to 1860 and from the 1970s to today—rising more than in any other wealthy nation in the world. Unequal Gains also demonstrates how the widening income gaps have always touched every social group, from the richest to the poorest. The book sheds critical light on the forces that shaped American income history, and situates that history in a broad global context.

Economic writing at its most stimulating, Unequal Gains provides a vitally needed perspective on who has benefited most from American growth, and why.

Peter H. Lindert is Distinguished Professor of Economics at the University of California, Davis. His books include Growing Public: Social Spending and Economic Growth since the Eighteenth Century. He lives in Davis, California. Jeffrey G. Williamson is the Laird Bell Professor of Economics, emeritus, at Harvard University. His books include Trade and Poverty: When the Third World Fell Behind. He lives in Madison, Wisconsin. Both are research associates at the National Bureau of Economic Research.


"[I]ts conclusions are both accessible and urgent."--Kirkus Reviews

"Brilliant. . . . A masterpiece in quantitative and qualitative economic research destined to become a classic in its field."--Library Journal, starred review

"An ambitious and rigorous attempt to address some long-overlooked questions about U.S. economic development."--Helen Fessenden, Econ Focus

"[Unequal Gains] traces how inequality surged and receded in American history. . . . The book contains an unprecedented graph that goes all the way back to the eve of independence and charts how unequal people's incomes were. . . . This is as much a work of history as it is a work of economics."--Washington Post

"Stunning."--Kenneth Stewart and Casey Jones, Standard-Times


"Unequal Gains provides a brilliant historical perspective on the market forces and political currents behind the explosion of economic disparities in the United States over the past four decades. Lindert and Williamson offer essential insights that can help assure a more equal sharing of the gains made possible by American economic growth."--Samuel Bowles, author of The Moral Economy: Why Good Incentives Are No Substitute for Good Citizens

"Unequal Gains is a very important contribution to the study of American economic development, and is particularly relevant for current concerns about the causes and consequences of income inequality. Lindert and Williamson provide new information about the qualitative and quantitative changes since the colonial period, mainly in the United States, but also in comparison with Great Britain and other nations. This is a major scholarly achievement."--Stanley L. Engerman, University of Rochester

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