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On Purpose
Michael Ruse

Hardcover | November 2017 | $27.95 | £22.95 | ISBN: 9780691172460
320 pp. | 5 1/2 x 8 1/2
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A brief, accessible history of the idea of purpose in Western thought, from ancient Greece to the present

Can we live without the idea of purpose? Should we even try to? Kant thought we were stuck with purpose, and even Darwin’s theory of natural selection, which profoundly shook the idea, was unable to kill it. Indeed, teleological explanation—what Aristotle called understanding in terms of “final causes”—seems to be making a comeback today, as both religious proponents of intelligent design and some prominent secular philosophers argue that any explanation of life without the idea of purpose is missing something essential.

In On Purpose, Michael Ruse explores the history of the idea of purpose in philosophical, religious, scientific, and historical thought, from ancient Greece to the present. Accessibly written and filled with literary and other examples, the book examines “purpose” thinking in the natural and human world. It shows how three ideas about purpose have been at the heart of Western thought for more than two thousand years. In the Platonic view, purpose results from the planning of a human or divine being; in the Aristotelian, purpose stems from a tendency or principle of order in the natural world; and in the Kantian, purpose is essentially heuristic, or something to be discovered, an idea given substance by Darwin’s theory of evolution through natural selection.

On Purpose traces the profound and fascinating implications of these ways of thinking about purpose. Along the way, it takes up tough questions about the purpose of life and whether it’s possible to have meaning without purpose, revealing that purpose is still a vital and pressing issue.

Michael Ruse is the Lucyle T. Werkmeister Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Program in the History and Philosophy of Science at Florida State University. He has written or edited more than fifty books, including Darwinism as Religion, The Philosophy of Human Evolution, and The Darwinian Revolution.


"Do humans have purposes and values? Michael Ruse, after ‘a lifetime's quest for understanding,' concludes ‘yes.' In this book, he journeys from Plato and Aristotle, through St. Augustine and Kant, to Darwin. The exploration is scholarly and profound, as well as eminently readable. There is much to learn from On Purpose and much to relish while reading it."--Francisco J. Ayala, University of California, Irvine

"There are no other books on the story of purpose in Western thinking that have such a broad, comprehensive, and historical approach. Michael Ruse probably knows this subject better than anyone else. He is always clear-eyed, and his writing is unique—conversational, personal, and irreverent."--Richard Richards, University of Alabama

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments ix
Prologue xi
1 Athens 1
2 Jerusalem 23
3 Machines 42
4 Evolution 61
5 Charles Darwin 76
6 Darwinism 91
7 Plato Redivivus 114
8 Aristotle Redivivus 129
9 Human Evolution 153
10 Mind 166
11 Religion 195
12 The End 210
Epilogue 239
Notes 241
Bibliography 267
Index 285

Other Princeton books authored or coauthored by Michael Ruse:

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