Theories of international relations, assumed to be universally applicable, have failed to explain the creation of states in Africa. There, the interaction of power and space is dramatically different from what occurred in Europe. In his groundbreaking book, Jeffrey Herbst places the African state-building process in a truly comparative perspective, examining the problem of state consolidation from the precolonial period, through the short but intense interlude of European colonialism, to the modern era of independent states. Herbst's bold contention--that the conditions now facing African state-builders existed long before European penetration of the continent--is sure to provoke controversy, for it runs counter to the prevailing assumption that colonialism changed everything.
In identifying how the African state-building process differs from the European experience, Herbst addresses the fundamental problem confronting African leaders: how to extend authority over sparsely settled lands. Indeed, efforts to exert control over vast, inhospitable territories of low population density and varied environmental and geographical zones have resulted in devastating wars, millions of refugees, and dysfunctional governments perpetrating destructive policies.
Detailing the precise political calculations of distinct African leaders, Herbst isolates the basic dynamics of African state development. In analyzing how these leaders have attempted to consolidate power, he is able to evaluate a variety of policy alternatives for dealing with the fundamental political challenges facing African states today.
"This ambitious and original book turns a comparative historical lens on state-building in Africa. . . . A brave effort to rethink some outdated approaches to fundamental problems."--Foreign Affairs
"An original and intriguing book, which I read with the greatest interest. Herbst's argument is provocative and lucidly presented. This book will be read and debated not only by Africanists but also by others in the political science community. It is the most important and successful contribution to the literature on African politics since Jackson and Rosberg's Personal Rule in Black Africa."--Robert H. Bates, Harvard University, author of Open-Economy Politics: The Political Economy of the World Coffee Trade
"Herbst's arguments will excite controversy among students of African history and politics, who have built up an extensive story about European transformations of African politics. His analysis raises doubts about how deeply those transformations went; rather, he maintains that durable conditions of topography and social structure have long constrained African state formation. Herbst offers an integrated account of state formation, transformation, and deformation in sub-Saharan Africa."--Charles Tilly, Columbia University, author of Durable Inquality
Table of Contents:
PART ONE: THE CHALLENGE OF STATE-BUILDING IN AFRICA 9
One The Challenge of State-Building in Africa 11
PART TWO: THE CONSTRUCTION OF STATES IN AFRICA 33
Two Power and Space in Precolonial Africa 35
Three The Europeans and the African Problem 58
Four The Political Kingdom in Independent Africa 97
PART THREE: NATIONAL DESIGN AND DOMESTIC POLITICS 137
Five National Design and the Broadcasting of Power 139
Six Chiefs, States, and the Land 173
PART FOUR: BOUNDARIES AND POWER 199
Seven The Coin of the African Realm 201
Eight The Politics of Migration and Citizenship 227
PART FIVE: CONCLUSION 249
Nine The Past and the Future of State Power in Africa 251