In 1949, Romania's fledgling communist regime unleashed a radical and brutal campaign to collectivize agriculture in this largely agrarian country, following the Soviet model. Peasants under Siege provides the first comprehensive look at the far-reaching social engineering process that ensued. Gail Kligman and Katherine Verdery examine how collectivization assaulted the very foundations of rural life, transforming village communities that were organized around kinship and status hierarchies into segments of large bureaucratic organizations, forged by the language of "class warfare" yet saturated with vindictive personal struggles.
Collectivization not only overturned property relations, the authors argue, but was crucial in creating the Party-state that emerged, its mechanisms of rule, and the "new persons" that were its subjects. The book explores how ill-prepared cadres, themselves unconvinced of collectivization's promises, implemented technologies and pedagogies imported from the Soviet Union through actions that contributed to the excessive use of force, which Party leaders were often unable to control. In addition, the authors show how local responses to the Party's initiatives compelled the regime to modify its plans and negotiate outcomes.
Drawing on archival documents, oral histories, and ethnographic data, Peasants under Siege sheds new light on collectivization in the Soviet era and on the complex tensions underlying and constraining political authority.
Gail Kligman is professor of sociology and director of the Center for European and Eurasian Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. Katherine Verdery is the Julien J. Studley Faculty Scholar and Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the City University of New York Graduate Center.
"Two senior scholars have written a seminal work on the creation of collective agriculture in Romania. . . . Methodologically sound, the analysis relies on, synthesizes, and draws upon the authors' own studies as well as those of 19 collaborators who studied villages and communes throughout Romania between 1998 and 2004. . . . Their theoretical conceptualization, especially the dissection of property transformation as a cultural, social, and political process at the village level, places this among the best studies of state socialism as well as peasant resistance."--Choice
"This book is the fruit of a ten-year project undertaken by two premier social anthropologists working with an international, interdisciplinary team of 19 scholars. . . . The results, as the authors richly document, turned out to be far more convoluted, ironic, and layered than histories to this point have suggested. The bricks and mortar of their study are massive data they assembled, generated from multiple, diverse sources. But the book's depth results from its thoughtful reflections on the fundamental relationships among people, property, and the state. It offers a model of how histories of this period in Eastern Europe should treat the intricacies of cause and effect, authoritarian design and bureaucratic muddling, and political power and the power of tradition."--Foreign Affairs
"Their book sets a high bar for future collectivization studies . . . because of the book's innovative and effective approach. . . . Kligman and Verdery are correct to restrict their understanding of this period to the representation of their interviewees' opinions and recollections as well as to their own learned interpretations of Romanian archives and collectivization scholarship. Their efforts result in a tremendous contribution to our knowledge of collectivization in the 20th century."--Russell Zanca, American Journal of Sociology
Table of Contents:
List of Illustrations ix
List of Tables xi
Part I. Laying the Groundwork
Chapter 1. The Soviet Blueprint 49
Chapter 2. The Village Community and the Politics of Collectivization, 1945-62 88
Chapter 3. Creating Party Cadres 150
Part II. Pedagogies of Power: Technologies of Rural Transformation
Chapter 4. Pedagogies of Knowledge Production and Contestation 215
Chapter 5. Pedagogies of Persuasion 283
Chapter 6. Fomenting Class War 324
Part III. Outcomes
Chapter 7. The Collectives Are Formed 369
Chapter 8. The Restratification and Bureaucratization of Rural Life 408
Appendix I. Project and Participants 461
Appendix II. Methodology 464
Appendix III. List of Interviewers and Respondents 472
Other Princeton books authored or coauthored by Gail Kligman:
Another Princeton book authored or coauthored by Katherine Verdery: