Can a country be a democracy if its government only responds to the preferences of the rich? In an ideal democracy, all citizens should have equal influence on government policy--but as this book demonstrates, America's policymakers respond almost exclusively to the preferences of the economically advantaged. Affluence and Influence definitively explores how political inequality in the United States has evolved over the last several decades and how this growing disparity has been shaped by interest groups, parties, and elections.
With sharp analysis and an impressive range of data, Martin Gilens looks at thousands of proposed policy changes, and the degree of support for each among poor, middle-class, and affluent Americans. His findings are staggering: when preferences of low- or middle-income Americans diverge from those of the affluent, there is virtually no relationship between policy outcomes and the desires of less advantaged groups. In contrast, affluent Americans' preferences exhibit a substantial relationship with policy outcomes whether their preferences are shared by lower-income groups or not. Gilens shows that representational inequality is spread widely across different policy domains and time periods. Yet Gilens also shows that under specific circumstances the preferences of the middle class and, to a lesser extent, the poor, do seem to matter. In particular, impending elections--especially presidential elections--and an even partisan division in Congress mitigate representational inequality and boost responsiveness to the preferences of the broader public.
At a time when economic and political inequality in the United States only continues to rise, Affluence and Influence raises important questions about whether American democracy is truly responding to the needs of all its citizens.
Martin Gilens is professor of politics at Princeton University. He is the author of Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy.
"The best book in decades on political inequality. . . . Gilens's years of careful empirical research and his impressively fair and clear presentation of evidence mark a major step forward in the scientific study of political inequality in America."--Larry Bartels, Monkey Cage blog
"[T]he findings in [Martin Gilens's book] are important, timely, and, at times, surprising."--Glenn C. Altschuler, Huffington Post
"[F]ascinating."--Pacific Standard Magazine
"This book is already being hailed as a landmark study of American political representation."--Thomas Ferguson, Perspectives on Politics
"[I] was simply unaware of the facts presented in Martin Gilens's new Affluence and Influence. Gilens compiles a massive data set of public opinion surveys and subsequent policy outcomes, and reaches a shocking conclusion: Democracy has a strong tendency to simply supply the policies favored by the rich. When the poor, the middle class, and the rich disagree, American democracy largely ignores the poor and the middle class. . . . [I]ntellectually satisfying."--Bryan Caplan, Econlog
"This nuanced, carefully constructed volume evaluates the relationship between growing economic inequality and political power in the U.S., finding that policy outcomes are biased overwhelmingly in favour of the affluent. . . . Especially impressive are his successful efforts at separating the influence of interest groups and political parties on policy outcomes from the influence of public opinion by economic class. His opening chapter on citizen competence and democratic decision making should be required reading for those who doubt the feasibility and value of a truly representative government."--Choice
"Martin Gilens makes an important empirical contribution to the discussions about the effects of inequality on policymaking in the United States."--Nolan McCarty, American Interest
Table of Contents:
List of Tables ix
List of Figures xi
Chapter 1 Citizen Competence and Democratic Decision Making 12
Chapter 2 Data and Methods 50
Chapter 3 The Preference/Policy Link 70
Chapter 4 Policy Domains and Democratic Responsiveness 97
Chapter 5 Interest Groups and Democratic Responsiveness 124
Chapter 6 Parties, Elections, and Democratic Responsiveness 162
Chapter 7 Democratic Responsiveness across Time 193
Chapter 8 Money and American Politics 234
Copublished with the Russell Sage Foundation