Russification in the Baltic Provinces and Finland, 1855-1914
Edited by Edward C. Thaden


Accompanying the gradual systematization of government and modernization of society in Russia during the reforms of the 1860s was a policy of Russification toward Finland and the Baltic provinces of Estland, Livland, and Kurland. From a variety of group and national perspectives, five scholars here depict the formulation, implementation, and effect of this policy.

First published in 1981.