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# Einstein and the Quantum

The Quest of the Valiant Swabian

**A. Douglas Stone **

- Hardcover2013Hardcover29.9524.95ISBN9780691139685344 pp.6 x 9 1/418 halftones. 5 line illus.Live

*Einstein and the Quantum* reveals for the first time the full significance of Albert Einstein's contributions to quantum theory. Einstein famously rejected quantum mechanics, observing that God does not play dice. But, in fact, he thought more about the nature of atoms, molecules, and the emission and absorption of light--the core of what we now know as quantum theory--than he did about relativity.

A compelling blend of physics, biography, and the history of science, *Einstein and the Quantum* shares the untold story of how Einstein--not Max Planck or Niels Bohr--was the driving force behind early quantum theory. It paints a vivid portrait of the iconic physicist as he grappled with the apparently contradictory nature of the atomic world, in which its invisible constituents defy the categories of classical physics, behaving simultaneously as both particle and wave. And it demonstrates how Einstein's later work on the emission and absorption of light, and on atomic gases, led directly to Erwin Schrödinger's breakthrough to the modern form of quantum mechanics. The book sheds light on why Einstein ultimately renounced his own brilliant work on quantum theory, due to his deep belief in science as something objective and eternal.

A book unlike any other, *Einstein and the Quantum* offers a completely new perspective on the scientific achievements of the greatest intellect of the twentieth century, showing how Einstein's contributions to the development of quantum theory are more significant, perhaps, than even his legendary work on relativity.

*A. Douglas Stone*is the Carl A. Morse Professor of Applied Physics and Physics at Yale University.

## More about this book

- Winner of the 2014 Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, Phi Beta Kappa Society
- One of
*Physics World*'s Top Ten Books of the Year for 2014 - One of
*Choice*'s Outstanding Academic Titles for 2014 - One of
*Scientific American*’s Best 2013 Books for the Physics Fan, chosen by Jennifer Ouellette - One of
*Science Friday*’s Science Book Picks for 2013, chosen by Ira Flatow - One of nbc.com’s "Holiday Gift Books Span the Science Spectrum" for 2014

A. Douglas Stone and Ramamurti Shankar Interview

Yale University

## Reviews

"Brief, pacey and lucid. . . . The breadth and depth of Einstein's contribution in this area becomes overwhelmingly clear. . . . Worth a read because it demonstrates that there is more to Einstein's oeuvre than even most quantum physicists know. Stone concludes that Einstein's work was worthy of four Nobel prizes, and it is a measure of the book's achievement that his claim sounds quite reasonable."**--Graham Farmelo, Nature**

"Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is as famous for his paradigm-shifting theories of relativity as he is for his grudge against quantum mechanics, but Stone's (Physics/Yale Univ.) engaging history of Einstein's ardent search for a unifying theory tells a different story. Einstein's creative mind was behind almost every single major development in quantum mechanics. . . . The author adeptly weaves his subject's personal life and scientific fame through the tumult of world war and, in accessible and bright language, brings readers deep into Einstein's struggle with both the macroscopic reality around him and the quantum reality he was trying to unlock. . . . A wonderful reminder that Einstein's monumental role in the development of contemporary science is even more profound than history has allowed."**-- Kirkus Reviews**

"A fascinating book, so well written lay people can easily understand this. It is full of science and personality."**--Ira Flatow, Science Friday, NPR**

"In *Einstein and the Quantum: The Quest of the Valiant Swabian* (Princeton University Press), a historical analysis leavened by many personal stories about Albert Einstein, A. Douglas Stone argues persuasively and engagingly that although this iconic scientist rejected quantum theory as a final theory of microscopic physics, he was responsible for most of its central concepts, including wave-particle duality, indeterminacy and the implications of identicalness."**--Sir Michael Berry, Times Higher Education**

"Professor Douglas Stone has written an engaging book about Einstein's contributions to early quantum theory. He makes a convincing case that these contributions, most of which were made in the 20 year period between 1905 and 1925, have been historically undervalued and that it was Einstein himself, not Planck or Bohr, who deserves most credit for the initial development of quantum theory. . . . Excellent."**--Paul Edwards, Australian Physics**

"This is an excellent book that I recommend without reservation. . . . Any academic library should acquire this book as should any medium-to-large public library system. It would also make a wonderful gift for the physics or science fan in your life."**--John Dupuis, Confessions of a Science Librarian**

"In consummate detail and with a flair for the written word, [Stone] delves into Einstein's original rationale for espousing the quantum, his use of it to account for the mysterious behavior of specific heats at low temperatures, his explanations of spontaneous and stimulated emissions, and the derivation of the statistics of integer-spin particles. Readers benefit from Stone's deep understanding of quantum physics as well as his thoroughness in citing primary Einstein documents--rather than regurgitating the opinions of others--to support his conclusions. . . . There are only a few books on the history of physics that I can heartily recommend to both scholarly historians and physicists interested in the history of their discipline. Because of Stone's extensive research and writing abilities, *Einstein and the Quantum* is indeed one of those books."**--Michael Riordan, Forum on the History of Physics**

"*Einstein and the Quantum* is delightful to read, with numerous historical details that were new to me and cham1ing vignettes of Einstein and his colleagues. By avoiding mathematics, Stone makes his book accessible to general readers, but even physicists who are well versed in Einstein and his physics are likely to find new insights into the most remarkable mind of the modern era."**--Daniel Kleppner, Physics Today**

"This engaging book shows that Einstein spent more of his career on quantum physics than on relativity theory and was deeply involved in discussions that shaped current understanding of the subject. . . . His well-written book makes often-trod history fresh, with new perspectives and unfamiliar quotations from Einstein and his peers. Anyone with an interest in the subject, from scholars to laypersons, can read and enjoy this book."**-- Choice**

"The book is probably best suited to readers who are already familiar with the basic principles of late classical and early quantum physics. However, in many cases, Stone's explanations are better and more intuitive than those found in traditional textbooks; for this reason, *Einstein and the Quantum* would make excellent 'further reading' for undergraduate courses in thermodynamics, modern physics or the history of science. Stone also has a knack for summing up complex ideas in a way that even novices will understand."**-- Physics World**

"A five star, standout book. . . . If you really want a feel for where quantum physics came from . . . it is well worth it."**-- Popular Science (U.K.)**

"Stone is a talented writer. Employing a sharp, clean and ironic prose, he translates into intuitive images and limpid reasoning a set of complex physics arguments, which might appear at first sight incomprehensible without a clear understanding of the technical terms. It is remarkable that the author manages to do this by employing just a handful of elementary equations. Even the uninitiated reader can grasp the essential features of Einstein's groundbreaking proposals as well as of the theoretical problems he was facing. In my opinion, this is the major strength of Stone's book, which makes it much more accessible than other scholarly works that present Einstein's involvement in the development of quantum theory in a more technical fashion."**--Roberto Lalli, Metascience**

## Endorsements

"With his lucid and engaging style, A. Douglas Stone has captured one of the most interesting tales in the history of science. Despite Einstein's later discomfort with quantum theory, Stone shows how absolutely instrumental Einstein was in its development. It's a wonderful story that reveals the essence of Einstein's genius and creativity, and Stone is exactly the right person to tell it. I can hear Einstein chuckling in anticipation."**--Walter Isaacson, author of Einstein: His Life and Universe and Steve Jobs**

"A. Douglas Stone argues that the scientist best known as the creator of relativity theory was also the originator and substantial developer of almost every concept in the quantum mechanics that dominates today's physics. In this scholarly, convincing, and eloquently presented account, Einstein's personal and cultural lives are seamlessly interwoven with his science. I learned a great deal from *Einstein and the Quantum*, and recommend it to working physicists as well as students and nonscientists wishing to understand a central aspect of the cultural history of the twentieth century."**--Michael Berry, University of Bristol**

"A. Douglas Stone, a physicist who has spent his life using quantum mechanics to explore striking new phenomena, has turned his considerable writing skills to thinking about Einstein and the quantum. What he finds and makes broadly understandable are the riches of Einstein's thinking not about relativity, not about his arguments with Bohr, but about Einstein's deep insights into the quantum world, insights that Stone shows speak to us now with all the vividness and depth they had a century ago. This is a fascinating book, lively, engaging, and strong in physical intuition."**--Peter Galison, author of Einstein's Clocks, Poincaré's Maps**

"Max Born said, 'Einstein is . . . clearly involved in the foundation of wave mechanics and no alibi can disprove it.' In this informative and engaging book, A. Douglas Stone cracks the case and reveals Einstein's fingerprints all over the subject."**--Richard L. Garwin, physicist, recipient of the Enrico Fermi Award and the National Medal of Science**

"Common lore holds that Einstein's essential contribution to physics is relativity. But in this scholarly and accessible book, A. Douglas Stone argues convincingly that Einstein had a profound impact on the development of quantum theory. With lively, engaging, and thoroughly enjoyable prose, Stone's account is bound to be a definitive history of the subject, vividly establishing that Einstein's genius permeates one of the most startling advances in twentieth-century science."**--Brian Greene, author of The Elegant Universe**

"There's a lot of really good stuff in this book. I enjoyed it enormously. I know of no other book that covers Einstein's role in quantum mechanics so accessibly."**--Daniel F. Styer, author of Relativity for the Questioning Mind**

## Table of Contents

*Acknowledgments*ix

Introduction A Hundred Times More Than Relativity Theory 1

Chapter 1 "An Act of Desperation" 5

Chapter 2 The Impudent Swabian 15

Chapter 3 The Gypsy Life 21

Chapter 4 Two Pillars of Wisdom 26

Chapter 5 The Perfect Instruments of the Creator 36

Chapter 6 More Heat Than Light 44

Chapter 7 Difficult Counting 51

Chapter 8 Those Fabulous Molecules 62

Chapter 9 Tripping the Light Heuristic 70

Chapter 10 Entertaining the Contradiction 80

Chapter 11 Stalking the Planck 86

Chapter 12 Calamity Jeans 94

Chapter 13 Frozen Vibrations 103

Chapter 14 Planck's Nobel Nightmare 111

Chapter 15 Joining the Union 122

Chapter 16 Creative Fusion 129

Chapter 17 The Importance of Being Nernst 141

Chapter 18 Lamenting the Ruins 149

Chapter 19 A Cosmic Interlude 160

Chapter 20 Bohr's Atomic Sonata 168

Chapter 21 Relying on Chance 181

Chapter 22 Chaotic Ghosts 193

Chapter 23 Fifteen Million Minutes of Fame 204

Chapter 24 The Indian Comet 215

Chapter 25 Quantum Dice 228

Chapter 26 The Royal Marriage:

*E = mc*

^{2}= hν 241Chapter 27 The Viennese Polymath 254

Chapter 28 Confusion and Then Uncertainty 268

Chapter 29

*Nicht diese Töne*279

*Appendix 1: The Physicists*287

*Appendix 2: The Three Thermal Radiation Laws*291

*Notes*295

*References*319

*Index*325

## Other Books Written by this Author(s)

- A. Douglas Stone

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